Bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is currently the most effective treatment for obesity and its related comorbidities. One important mechanism of action is a rapid and long-lasting reduction of plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. How RYGB decreases plasma TG levels, however, is unclear. Kaufman et al. reveal substantial RYGB-induced changes in how enterocytes handle lipids, including TG absorption, reesterification, storage in lipid droplets, and oxidation. These changes likely contribute to the RYGB-induced improvement in plasma TG levels.