Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises hepatic alterations with increased lipid accumulation (steatosis) without or with inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) and/or fibrosis in the absence of other causes of liver disease. NAFLD is developing as a burgeoning health challenge, mainly due to the worldwide obesity and diabetes epidemics.
Recent studies have provided evidence that certain conditions, for example, the severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD) subgroup (cluster) and the presence of an increasing number of gene variants, seem to predispose for excessive risk of NAFLD and its accelerated progression. Recent clinical trials have been frequently unsuccessful in halting or preventing NAFLD progression, perhaps partly due to including unselected cohorts in later stages of NAFLD. On the basis of this literature review, this study proposed screening in individuals with the highest genetic or acquired risk of disease progression, for example, the SIRD subgroup, and developing treatment concepts targeting the earliest pathophysiolgical alterations, namely, adipocyte dysfunction and insulin resistance.