Loss of skeletal muscle estrogen-related receptors leads to severe exercise intolerance
Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is central to physical activity, exercise capacity and whole-body metabolism. The three estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are regulators of oxidative metabolism in many cell types, yet their roles in skeletal muscle remain unclear. The main aim of this study was to compare the relative contributions of ERRs to oxidative capacity in glycolytic and oxidative muscle, and to determine defects associated with loss of skeletal muscle ERR function.
We assessed ERR expression, generated mice lacking one or two ERRs specifically in skeletal muscle and compared the effects of ERR loss on the transcriptomes of EDL (predominantly glycolytic) and soleus (oxidative) muscles. We also determined the consequences of the loss of ERRs for exercise capacity and energy metabolism in mice with the most severe loss of ERR activity.
ERRs were induced in human skeletal muscle in response to an exercise bout. Mice lacking both ERRα and ERRγ (ERRα/γ dmKO) had the broadest and most dramatic disruption in skeletal muscle gene expression. The most affected pathway was “mitochondrial function”, in particular Oxphos and TCA cycle genes, and transcriptional defects were more pronounced in the glycolytic EDL than the oxidative soleus. Mice lacking ERRβ and ERRγ, the two isoforms expressed highly in oxidative muscles, also exhibited defects in lipid and branch chain amino acid metabolism genes, specifically in the soleus. The pronounced disruption of oxidative metabolism in ERRα/γ dmKO mice led to pale muscles, decreased oxidative capacity, histochemical patterns reminiscent of minicore myopathies, and severe exercise intolerance, with the dmKO mice unable to switch to lipid utilization upon running. ERRα/γ dmKO mice showed no defects in whole-body glucose and energy homeostasis.
Our findings define gene expression programs in skeletal muscle that depend on different combinations of ERRs, and establish a central role for ERRs in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and exercise capacity. Our data reveal a high degree of functional redundancy among muscle ERR isoforms for the protection of oxidative capacity, and show that ERR isoform-specific phenotypes are driven in part, but not exclusively, by their relative levels in different muscles.