Volume 70 | April 2023

Cover Story

There has been a resurgence in interest in the mechanism controlling hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) hormone release stemming from clinical associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The HNS comprises large magnocellular neurones (MCNs) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) that make the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) and release them peripherally into the blood circulation from nerve terminals located in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (PP), and within the brain from dendrites and axon collaterals. By signalling at specific G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the periphery and centrally, AVP and OXT can regulate physiological processes crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis.

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