Cover Story Current Issue

The prevalence of obesity continues to increase worldwide due to complex behavioral, genetic, and environmental factors. Obesity is a major contributor to metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Tissue crosstalk through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signals are critical regulators of energy and nutrient homeostasis.

Sharon O. Jensen-Cody, Matthew J. Potthoff

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Current Issue

Amylin receptor insensitivity impairs hypothalamic POMC neuron differentiation in the male offspring of maternal high-fat diet-fed mice

Cheng Li, Jing-Jing Xu, Hong-Tao Hu, Chao-Yi Shi, ... He-Feng Huang

Objective

Amylin was found to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism by acting on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induces sex-specific metabolic diseases mediated by the ARC in offspring. This study was performed to explore 1) the effect of maternal HFD-induced alterations in amylin on the differentiation of hypothalamic neurons and metabolic disorders in male offspring and 2) the specific molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of amylin and its receptor in response to maternal HFD.

Methods

Maternal HFD and gestational hyper-amylin mice models were established to explore the role of hypothalamic amylin and receptor activity-modifying protein 3 (Ramp3) in regulating offspring metabolism. RNA pull-down, mass spectrometry, RNA immunoprecipitation, and RNA decay assays were performed to investigate the mechanism underlying the influence of maternal HFD on Ramp3 deficiency in the fetal hypothalamus.

Results

Male offspring with maternal HFD grew heavier and developed metabolic disorders, whereas female offspring with maternal HFD showed a slight increase in body weight and did not develop metabolic disorders compared to those exposed to maternal normal chow diet (NCD). Male offspring exposed to a maternal HFD had hyperamylinemia from birth until adulthood, which was inconsistent with offspring exposed to maternal NCD. Hyperamylinemia in the maternal HFD-exposed male offspring might be attributed to amylin accumulation following Ramp3 deficiency in the fetal hypothalamus. After Ramp3knockdown in hypothalamic neural stem cells (htNSCs), amylin was found to fail to promote the differentiation of anorexigenic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-proopiomelanocortin (α-MSH-POMC) neurons but not orexigenic agouti-related protein-neuropeptide Y (AgRP-Npy) neurons. An investigation of the mechanism involved showed that IGF2BP1 could specifically bind to Ramp3 in htNSCs and maintain its mRNA stability. Downregulation of IGF2BP1 in htNSCs in the HFD group could decrease Ramp3 expression and lead to an impairment of α-MSH-POMC neuron differentiation.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that gestational exposure to HFD decreases the expression of IGF2BP1 in the hypothalami of male offspring and destabilizes Ramp3 mRNA, which leads to amylin resistance. The subsequent impairment of POMC neuron differentiation induces sex-specific metabolic disorders in adulthood.

 

Amylin receptor insensitivity impairs hypothalamic POMC neuron differentiation in the male offspring of maternal high-fat diet-fed mice

Cheng Li, Jing-Jing Xu, Hong-Tao Hu, Chao-Yi Shi, ... He-Feng Huang

Objective

Amylin was found to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism by acting on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) induces sex-specific metabolic diseases mediated by the ARC in offspring. This study was performed to explore 1) the effect of maternal HFD-induced alterations in amylin on the differentiation of hypothalamic neurons and metabolic disorders in male offspring and 2) the specific molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of amylin and its receptor in response to maternal HFD.

Methods

Maternal HFD and gestational hyper-amylin mice models were established to explore the role of hypothalamic amylin and receptor activity-modifying protein 3 (Ramp3) in regulating offspring metabolism. RNA pull-down, mass spectrometry, RNA immunoprecipitation, and RNA decay assays were performed to investigate the mechanism underlying the influence of maternal HFD on Ramp3 deficiency in the fetal hypothalamus.

Results

Male offspring with maternal HFD grew heavier and developed metabolic disorders, whereas female offspring with maternal HFD showed a slight increase in body weight and did not develop metabolic disorders compared to those exposed to maternal normal chow diet (NCD). Male offspring exposed to a maternal HFD had hyperamylinemia from birth until adulthood, which was inconsistent with offspring exposed to maternal NCD. Hyperamylinemia in the maternal HFD-exposed male offspring might be attributed to amylin accumulation following Ramp3 deficiency in the fetal hypothalamus. After Ramp3knockdown in hypothalamic neural stem cells (htNSCs), amylin was found to fail to promote the differentiation of anorexigenic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-proopiomelanocortin (α-MSH-POMC) neurons but not orexigenic agouti-related protein-neuropeptide Y (AgRP-Npy) neurons. An investigation of the mechanism involved showed that IGF2BP1 could specifically bind to Ramp3 in htNSCs and maintain its mRNA stability. Downregulation of IGF2BP1 in htNSCs in the HFD group could decrease Ramp3 expression and lead to an impairment of α-MSH-POMC neuron differentiation.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that gestational exposure to HFD decreases the expression of IGF2BP1 in the hypothalami of male offspring and destabilizes Ramp3 mRNA, which leads to amylin resistance. The subsequent impairment of POMC neuron differentiation induces sex-specific metabolic disorders in adulthood.

 

The 60 Second Metabolist

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