Cover Story Current Issue

The high prevalence of obesity is associated with increased mortality because of various comorbidities evoked by an increase in adiposity. Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease are major medical conditions commonly linked to alterations in the homeostatic pathways that regulate energy homeostasis. As a master regulator of energy balance, the brain integrates peripheral signals and, in turn, modulates feeding behavior and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamus acts as the main hub that receives and integrates peripheral signals.

Mohamed Rouabhi, Deng-Fu Guo, Donald A. Morgan, Zhiyong Zhu, ... Kamal Rahmouni

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Current Issue

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass contributes to weight loss-independent improvement in hypothalamic inflammation and leptin sensitivity through gut-microglia-neuron-crosstalk

Jiesi Chen, Nadine Haase, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Robert Sucher, ... Wiebke K. Fenske

Objective

Hypothalamic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are extensively linked to leptin resistance and overnutrition-related diseases. Surgical intervention remains the most efficient long-term weight-loss strategy for morbid obesity, but mechanisms underlying sustained feeding suppression remain largely elusive. This study investigated whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) interacts with obesity-associated hypothalamic inflammation to restore central leptin signaling as a mechanistic account for post-operative appetite suppression.

Methods

RYGB or sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese Wistar rats. Sham-operated rats were fed ad libitum or by weight matching to RYGB via calorie restriction (CR) before hypothalamic leptin signaling, microglia reactivity, and the inflammatory pathways were examined to be under the control of gut microbiota-derived circulating signaling.

Results

RYGB, other than CR-induced adiposity reduction, ameliorates hypothalamic gliosis, inflammatory signaling, and ER stress, which are linked to enhanced hypothalamic leptin signaling and responsiveness. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that RYGB interferes with hypothalamic ER stress and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling to restore the anorexigenic action of leptin, which most likely results from modulation of a circulating factor derived from the altered gut microbial environment upon RYGB surgery.

Conclusions

Our data demonstrate that RYGB interferes with hypothalamic TLR4 signaling to restore the anorexigenic action of leptin, which most likely results from modulation of a circulating factor derived from the post-surgical altered gut microbial environment.

 

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass contributes to weight loss-independent improvement in hypothalamic inflammation and leptin sensitivity through gut-microglia-neuron-crosstalk

Jiesi Chen, Nadine Haase, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Robert Sucher, ... Wiebke K. Fenske

Objective

Hypothalamic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are extensively linked to leptin resistance and overnutrition-related diseases. Surgical intervention remains the most efficient long-term weight-loss strategy for morbid obesity, but mechanisms underlying sustained feeding suppression remain largely elusive. This study investigated whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) interacts with obesity-associated hypothalamic inflammation to restore central leptin signaling as a mechanistic account for post-operative appetite suppression.

Methods

RYGB or sham surgery was performed in high-fat diet-induced obese Wistar rats. Sham-operated rats were fed ad libitum or by weight matching to RYGB via calorie restriction (CR) before hypothalamic leptin signaling, microglia reactivity, and the inflammatory pathways were examined to be under the control of gut microbiota-derived circulating signaling.

Results

RYGB, other than CR-induced adiposity reduction, ameliorates hypothalamic gliosis, inflammatory signaling, and ER stress, which are linked to enhanced hypothalamic leptin signaling and responsiveness. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that RYGB interferes with hypothalamic ER stress and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling to restore the anorexigenic action of leptin, which most likely results from modulation of a circulating factor derived from the altered gut microbial environment upon RYGB surgery.

Conclusions

Our data demonstrate that RYGB interferes with hypothalamic TLR4 signaling to restore the anorexigenic action of leptin, which most likely results from modulation of a circulating factor derived from the post-surgical altered gut microbial environment.

 

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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