Cover Story Current Issue

The high prevalence of obesity is associated with increased mortality because of various comorbidities evoked by an increase in adiposity. Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease are major medical conditions commonly linked to alterations in the homeostatic pathways that regulate energy homeostasis. As a master regulator of energy balance, the brain integrates peripheral signals and, in turn, modulates feeding behavior and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamus acts as the main hub that receives and integrates peripheral signals.

Mohamed Rouabhi, Deng-Fu Guo, Donald A. Morgan, Zhiyong Zhu, ... Kamal Rahmouni

Full text

 

Current Issue

Glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated human islets: Does it truly reflect β-cell function in vivo?

Jean-Claude Henquin

Background

Diabetes always involves variable degrees of β-cell demise and malfunction leading to insufficient insulin secretion. Besides clinical investigations, many research projects used rodent islets to study various facets of β-cell pathophysiology. Their important contributions laid the foundations of steadily increasing numbers of experimental studies resorting to isolated human islets.

Scope of review

This review, based on an analysis of data published over 60 years of clinical investigations and results of more recent studies in isolated islets, addresses a question of translational nature. Does the information obtained in vitro with human islets fit with our knowledge of insulin secretion in man? The aims are not to discuss specificities of pathways controlling secretion but to compare qualitative and quantitative features of glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated human islets and in living human subjects.

Major conclusions

Much of the information gathered in vitro can reliably be translated to the in vivo situation. There is a fairly good, though not complete, qualitative and quantitative coherence between insulin secretion rates measured in vivo and in vitro during stimulation with physiological glucose concentrations, but the concordance fades out under extreme conditions. Perplexing discrepancies also exist between insulin secretion in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and their islets studied in vitro, in particular concerning the kinetics. Future projects should ascertain that the experimental conditions are close to physiological and do not alter the function of normal and diabetic islets.

Glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated human islets: Does it truly reflect β-cell function in vivo?

Jean-Claude Henquin

Background

Diabetes always involves variable degrees of β-cell demise and malfunction leading to insufficient insulin secretion. Besides clinical investigations, many research projects used rodent islets to study various facets of β-cell pathophysiology. Their important contributions laid the foundations of steadily increasing numbers of experimental studies resorting to isolated human islets.

Scope of review

This review, based on an analysis of data published over 60 years of clinical investigations and results of more recent studies in isolated islets, addresses a question of translational nature. Does the information obtained in vitro with human islets fit with our knowledge of insulin secretion in man? The aims are not to discuss specificities of pathways controlling secretion but to compare qualitative and quantitative features of glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated human islets and in living human subjects.

Major conclusions

Much of the information gathered in vitro can reliably be translated to the in vivo situation. There is a fairly good, though not complete, qualitative and quantitative coherence between insulin secretion rates measured in vivo and in vitro during stimulation with physiological glucose concentrations, but the concordance fades out under extreme conditions. Perplexing discrepancies also exist between insulin secretion in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and their islets studied in vitro, in particular concerning the kinetics. Future projects should ascertain that the experimental conditions are close to physiological and do not alter the function of normal and diabetic islets.

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

Watch the most recent interviews by clicking the video still. 

Here is a video of Vimeo. When the iframes is activated, a connection to Vimeo is established and, if necessary, cookies from Vimeo are also used. For further information on cookies policy click here.

Here is a video of Vimeo. When the iframes is activated, a connection to Vimeo is established and, if necessary, cookies from Vimeo are also used. For further information on cookies policy click here.