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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved multisubstrate serine and threonine kinase. It is often referred to as an energy sensor of the cell, as cellular energy fluctuations lead to its activation. AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex consisting of one α-, β-, and γ-subunit. The α-subunit includes the kinase domain, while the β- and γ-subunits are regulatory in function. 

Nicolas O. Jørgensen, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Magnus R. Larsen, Jesper B. Birk, ... Jørgen F.P. Wojtaszewski

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Current Issue

Mitochondrial clearance of calcium facilitated by MICU2 controls insulin secretion

N. Vishnu, A. Hamilton, A. Bagge, A. Wernersson, ... H. Mulder

Objective

Transport of Ca2+ into pancreatic β cell mitochondria facilitates nutrient-mediated insulin secretion. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent establishment of the molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) and associated proteins allows modification of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in intact cells. We examined the consequences of deficiency of the accessory protein MICU2 in rat and human insulin-secreting cells and mouse islets.

Methods

siRNA silencing of Micu2 in the INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cell lines was performed; Micu2−/− mice were also studied. Insulin secretion and mechanistic analyses utilizing live confocal imaging to assess mitochondrial function and intracellular Ca2+ dynamics were performed.

Results

Silencing of Micu2 abrogated GSIS in the INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cells. The Micu2−/− mice also displayed attenuated GSIS. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake declined in MICU2-deficient INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cells in response to high glucose and high K+MICU2 silencing in INS-1 832/13 cells, presumably through its effects on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, perturbed mitochondrial function illustrated by absent mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and lowering of the ATP/ADP ratio in response to elevated glucose. Despite the loss of mitochondrial Ca2+uptake, cytosolic Ca2+ was lower in siMICU2-treated INS-1 832/13 cells in response to high K+. It was hypothesized that Ca2+ accumulated in the submembrane compartment in MICU2-deficient cells, resulting in desensitization of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, lowering total cytosolic Ca2+. Upon high K+ stimulation, MICU2-silenced cells showed higher and prolonged increases in submembrane Ca2+ levels.

Conclusions

MICU2 plays a critical role in β cell mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. β cell mitochondria sequestered Ca2+ from the submembrane compartment, preventing desensitization of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and facilitating GSIS.

 

 

Mitochondrial clearance of calcium facilitated by MICU2 controls insulin secretion

N. Vishnu, A. Hamilton, A. Bagge, A. Wernersson, ... H. Mulder

Objective

Transport of Ca2+ into pancreatic β cell mitochondria facilitates nutrient-mediated insulin secretion. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent establishment of the molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) and associated proteins allows modification of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in intact cells. We examined the consequences of deficiency of the accessory protein MICU2 in rat and human insulin-secreting cells and mouse islets.

Methods

siRNA silencing of Micu2 in the INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cell lines was performed; Micu2−/− mice were also studied. Insulin secretion and mechanistic analyses utilizing live confocal imaging to assess mitochondrial function and intracellular Ca2+ dynamics were performed.

Results

Silencing of Micu2 abrogated GSIS in the INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cells. The Micu2−/− mice also displayed attenuated GSIS. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake declined in MICU2-deficient INS-1 832/13 and EndoC-βH1 cells in response to high glucose and high K+MICU2 silencing in INS-1 832/13 cells, presumably through its effects on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, perturbed mitochondrial function illustrated by absent mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization and lowering of the ATP/ADP ratio in response to elevated glucose. Despite the loss of mitochondrial Ca2+uptake, cytosolic Ca2+ was lower in siMICU2-treated INS-1 832/13 cells in response to high K+. It was hypothesized that Ca2+ accumulated in the submembrane compartment in MICU2-deficient cells, resulting in desensitization of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, lowering total cytosolic Ca2+. Upon high K+ stimulation, MICU2-silenced cells showed higher and prolonged increases in submembrane Ca2+ levels.

Conclusions

MICU2 plays a critical role in β cell mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. β cell mitochondria sequestered Ca2+ from the submembrane compartment, preventing desensitization of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and facilitating GSIS.

 

 

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

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