Cover Story Current Issue

White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ that plays a central role in systemic energy balance through its interrelated metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. Adipocytes, the parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, have diverse functions that include storage and mobilization of lipids. They also release endocrine signals that report energy status to the brain, regulating metabolic functions in peripheral organs. Importantly, the metabolic character of white adipocytes is flexible, with cells capable of assuming distinct anabolic and catabolic/thermogenic phenotypes, often within the same adipose tissue depot

Elizabeth A. Rondini, Vanesa D. Ramseyer, Rayanne B. Burl, Roger Pique-Regi, James G. Granneman

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Current Issue

PAQR9 regulates hepatic ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation during fasting by modulating protein stability of PPARα

Yijun Lin, Lingling Chen, Xue You, Zixuan Li, ... Yan Chen

Background

The cycle of feeding and fasting is fundamental to life and closely coordinated with changes of metabolic programs. During extended starvation, ketogenesis coupled with fatty acid oxidation in the liver supplies ketone bodies to extrahepatic tissues as the major form of fuel. In this study, we demonstrated that PAQR9, a member of the progesterone and adipoQ receptor family, has a regulatory role on hepatic ketogenesis.

Methods

We analyzed the phenotype of Paqr9-deleted mice. We also used biochemical methods to investigate the interaction of PAQR9 with PPARα and HUWE1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase.

Results

The expression of Paqr9 was decreased during fasting partly depending on PPARγ. The overall phenotype of the mice was not altered by Paqr9 deletion under normal chow feeding. However, fasting-induced ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were attenuated by Paqr9 deletion. Mechanistically, Paqr9 deletion decreased protein stability of PPARα via enhancing its poly-ubiquitination. PAQR9 competed with HUWE1 for interaction with PPARα, thus preventing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PPARα.

Conclusion

Our study reveals that PAQR9 impacts starvation-mediated metabolic changes in the liver via post-translational regulation of PPARα.

PAQR9 regulates hepatic ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation during fasting by modulating protein stability of PPARα

Yijun Lin, Lingling Chen, Xue You, Zixuan Li, ... Yan Chen

Background

The cycle of feeding and fasting is fundamental to life and closely coordinated with changes of metabolic programs. During extended starvation, ketogenesis coupled with fatty acid oxidation in the liver supplies ketone bodies to extrahepatic tissues as the major form of fuel. In this study, we demonstrated that PAQR9, a member of the progesterone and adipoQ receptor family, has a regulatory role on hepatic ketogenesis.

Methods

We analyzed the phenotype of Paqr9-deleted mice. We also used biochemical methods to investigate the interaction of PAQR9 with PPARα and HUWE1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase.

Results

The expression of Paqr9 was decreased during fasting partly depending on PPARγ. The overall phenotype of the mice was not altered by Paqr9 deletion under normal chow feeding. However, fasting-induced ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were attenuated by Paqr9 deletion. Mechanistically, Paqr9 deletion decreased protein stability of PPARα via enhancing its poly-ubiquitination. PAQR9 competed with HUWE1 for interaction with PPARα, thus preventing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PPARα.

Conclusion

Our study reveals that PAQR9 impacts starvation-mediated metabolic changes in the liver via post-translational regulation of PPARα.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

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