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White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ that plays a central role in systemic energy balance through its interrelated metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. Adipocytes, the parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, have diverse functions that include storage and mobilization of lipids. They also release endocrine signals that report energy status to the brain, regulating metabolic functions in peripheral organs. Importantly, the metabolic character of white adipocytes is flexible, with cells capable of assuming distinct anabolic and catabolic/thermogenic phenotypes, often within the same adipose tissue depot

Elizabeth A. Rondini, Vanesa D. Ramseyer, Rayanne B. Burl, Roger Pique-Regi, James G. Granneman

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Current Issue

Single cell functional genomics reveals plasticity of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) during early postnatal development

Elizabeth A. Rondini, Vanesa D. Ramseyer, Rayanne B. Burl, Roger Pique-Regi, James G. Granneman

Objective

The current study addresses the cellular complexity and plasticity of subcutaneous (inguinal) white adipose tissue (iWAT) in mice during the critical periods of perinatal growth and establishment.

Methods

We performed a large-scale single cell transcriptomic (scRNA-seq) and epigenomic(snATAC-seq) characterization of cellular subtypes (adipose stromal cells (ASC) and adipocyte nuclei) during inguinal WAT (subcutaneous; iWAT) development in mice, capturing the early postnatal period (postnatal days (PND) 06 and 18) through adulthood (PND56).

Results

Perinatal and adult iWAT contain 3 major ASC subtypes that can be independently identified by RNA expression profiles and DNA transposase accessibility. Furthermore, the transcriptomes and enhancer landscapes of both ASC and adipocytes dynamically change during postnatal development. Perinatal ASC (PND06) are highly enriched for several imprinted genes (IGs; e.g., MestH19Igf2) and extracellular matrix proteins whose expression then declines prior to weaning (PND18). By comparison, adult ASC (PND56) are more enriched for transcripts associated with immunoregulation, oxidative stress, and integrin signaling. Two clusters of mature adipocytes, identified through single nuclei RNA sequencing(snRNA-seq), were distinctive for proinflammatory/immune or metabolic gene expression patterns that became more transcriptionally diverse in adult animals. Single nuclei assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (snATAC-seq) revealed that differences in gene expression were associated with developmental changes in chromatin accessibility and predicted transcription factor motifs (e.g., Plagl1, Ar) in both stromal cells and adipocytes.

Conclusions

Our data provide new insights into transcriptional and epigenomic signaling networks important during iWAT establishment at a single cell resolution, with important implications for the field of metabolic programming.

Single cell functional genomics reveals plasticity of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) during early postnatal development

Elizabeth A. Rondini, Vanesa D. Ramseyer, Rayanne B. Burl, Roger Pique-Regi, James G. Granneman

Objective

The current study addresses the cellular complexity and plasticity of subcutaneous (inguinal) white adipose tissue (iWAT) in mice during the critical periods of perinatal growth and establishment.

Methods

We performed a large-scale single cell transcriptomic (scRNA-seq) and epigenomic(snATAC-seq) characterization of cellular subtypes (adipose stromal cells (ASC) and adipocyte nuclei) during inguinal WAT (subcutaneous; iWAT) development in mice, capturing the early postnatal period (postnatal days (PND) 06 and 18) through adulthood (PND56).

Results

Perinatal and adult iWAT contain 3 major ASC subtypes that can be independently identified by RNA expression profiles and DNA transposase accessibility. Furthermore, the transcriptomes and enhancer landscapes of both ASC and adipocytes dynamically change during postnatal development. Perinatal ASC (PND06) are highly enriched for several imprinted genes (IGs; e.g., MestH19Igf2) and extracellular matrix proteins whose expression then declines prior to weaning (PND18). By comparison, adult ASC (PND56) are more enriched for transcripts associated with immunoregulation, oxidative stress, and integrin signaling. Two clusters of mature adipocytes, identified through single nuclei RNA sequencing(snRNA-seq), were distinctive for proinflammatory/immune or metabolic gene expression patterns that became more transcriptionally diverse in adult animals. Single nuclei assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (snATAC-seq) revealed that differences in gene expression were associated with developmental changes in chromatin accessibility and predicted transcription factor motifs (e.g., Plagl1, Ar) in both stromal cells and adipocytes.

Conclusions

Our data provide new insights into transcriptional and epigenomic signaling networks important during iWAT establishment at a single cell resolution, with important implications for the field of metabolic programming.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

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