Cover Story Current Issue

White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ that plays a central role in systemic energy balance through its interrelated metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. Adipocytes, the parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, have diverse functions that include storage and mobilization of lipids. They also release endocrine signals that report energy status to the brain, regulating metabolic functions in peripheral organs. Importantly, the metabolic character of white adipocytes is flexible, with cells capable of assuming distinct anabolic and catabolic/thermogenic phenotypes, often within the same adipose tissue depot

Elizabeth A. Rondini, Vanesa D. Ramseyer, Rayanne B. Burl, Roger Pique-Regi, James G. Granneman

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Current Issue

miR-126 contributes to the epigenetic signature of diabetic vascular smooth muscle and enhances antirestenosis effects of Kv1.3 blockers

Marycarmen Arevalo-Martinez, Pilar Cidad, Sara Moreno-Estar, Mirella Fernández, ... M. Teresa Pérez-Garcia

Objectives

Restenosis after vessel angioplasty due to dedifferentiation of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) limits the success of surgical treatment of vascular occlusions. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has a major impact on restenosis, with patients exhibiting more aggressive forms of vascular disease and poorer outcomes after surgery. Kv1.3 channels are critical players in VSMC proliferation. Kv1.3 blockers inhibit VSMCs MEK/ERK signalling and prevent vessel restenosis. We hypothesize that dysregulation of microRNAs (miR) play critical roles in adverse remodelling, contributing to Kv1.3 blockers efficacy in T2DM VSMCs.

Methods and results

We used clinically relevant in vivo models of vascular risk factors (VRF) and vessels and VSMCs from T2DM patients.

Resukts

Human T2DM vessels showed increased remodelling, and changes persisted in culture, with augmented VSMCs migration and proliferation. Moreover, there were downregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and upregulation of MEK/ERK pathways, with increased miR-126 expression. The inhibitory effects of Kv1.3 blockers on remodelling were significantly enhanced in T2DM VSMCs and in VRF model. Finally, miR-126 overexpression confered “diabetic” phenotype to non-T2DM VSMCs by downregulating PI3K/AKT axis.

Conclusions

miR-126 plays crucial roles in T2DM VSMC metabolic memory through activation of MEK/ERK pathway, enhancing the efficacy of Kv1.3 blockers in the prevention of restenosis in T2DM patients.

 

miR-126 contributes to the epigenetic signature of diabetic vascular smooth muscle and enhances antirestenosis effects of Kv1.3 blockers

Marycarmen Arevalo-Martinez, Pilar Cidad, Sara Moreno-Estar, Mirella Fernández, ... M. Teresa Pérez-Garcia

Objectives

Restenosis after vessel angioplasty due to dedifferentiation of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) limits the success of surgical treatment of vascular occlusions. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has a major impact on restenosis, with patients exhibiting more aggressive forms of vascular disease and poorer outcomes after surgery. Kv1.3 channels are critical players in VSMC proliferation. Kv1.3 blockers inhibit VSMCs MEK/ERK signalling and prevent vessel restenosis. We hypothesize that dysregulation of microRNAs (miR) play critical roles in adverse remodelling, contributing to Kv1.3 blockers efficacy in T2DM VSMCs.

Methods and results

We used clinically relevant in vivo models of vascular risk factors (VRF) and vessels and VSMCs from T2DM patients.

Resukts

Human T2DM vessels showed increased remodelling, and changes persisted in culture, with augmented VSMCs migration and proliferation. Moreover, there were downregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and upregulation of MEK/ERK pathways, with increased miR-126 expression. The inhibitory effects of Kv1.3 blockers on remodelling were significantly enhanced in T2DM VSMCs and in VRF model. Finally, miR-126 overexpression confered “diabetic” phenotype to non-T2DM VSMCs by downregulating PI3K/AKT axis.

Conclusions

miR-126 plays crucial roles in T2DM VSMC metabolic memory through activation of MEK/ERK pathway, enhancing the efficacy of Kv1.3 blockers in the prevention of restenosis in T2DM patients.

 

2020 impact factor: 7.4

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