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White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ that plays a central role in systemic energy balance through its interrelated metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. Adipocytes, the parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, have diverse functions that include storage and mobilization of lipids. They also release endocrine signals that report energy status to the brain, regulating metabolic functions in peripheral organs. Importantly, the metabolic character of white adipocytes is flexible, with cells capable of assuming distinct anabolic and catabolic/thermogenic phenotypes, often within the same adipose tissue depot

Elizabeth A. Rondini, Vanesa D. Ramseyer, Rayanne B. Burl, Roger Pique-Regi, James G. Granneman

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Current Issue

Translating glucose tolerance data from mice to humans: Insights from stable isotope labelled glucose tolerance tests

Clinton R. Bruce, Steven Hamley, Teddy Ang, Kirsten F. Howlett, ... Greg M. Kowalski

Objective

The glucose tolerance test (GTT) is widely used in human and animal biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Despite its prevalent use, particularly in mouse metabolic phenotyping, to the best of our knowledge we are not aware of any studies that have attempted to qualitatively compare the metabolic events during a GTT in mice with those performed in humans.

Methods

Stable isotope labelled oral glucose tolerance tests (siOGTTs; [6,6-2H2]glucose) were performed in both human and mouse cohorts to provide greater resolution into postprandial glucose kinetics. The siOGTT allows for the partitioning of circulating glucose into that derived from exogenous and endogenous sources. Young adults spanning the spectrum of normal glucose tolerance (n = 221), impaired fasting (n = 14), and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 19) underwent a 75g siOGTT, whereas a 50 mg siOGTT was performed on chow (n = 43) and high-fat high-sucrose fed C57Bl6 male mice (n = 46).

Results

During the siOGTT in humans, there is a long period (>3hr) of glucose absorptionand, accordingly, a large, sustained insulin response and robust suppression of lipolysis and endogenous glucose production (EGP), even in the presence of glucose intolerance. In contrast, mice appear to be highly reliant on glucose effectiveness to clear exogenous glucose and experience only modest, transient insulin responses with little, if any, suppression of EGP. In addition to the impaired stimulation of glucose uptake, mice with the worst glucose tolerance appear to have a paradoxical and persistent rise in EGP during the OGTT, likely related to handling stress.

Conclusions

The metabolic response to the OGTT in mice and humans is highly divergent. The potential reasons for these differences and their impact on the interpretation of mouse glucose tolerance data and their translation to humans are discussed.

Translating glucose tolerance data from mice to humans: Insights from stable isotope labelled glucose tolerance tests

Clinton R. Bruce, Steven Hamley, Teddy Ang, Kirsten F. Howlett, ... Greg M. Kowalski

Objective

The glucose tolerance test (GTT) is widely used in human and animal biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Despite its prevalent use, particularly in mouse metabolic phenotyping, to the best of our knowledge we are not aware of any studies that have attempted to qualitatively compare the metabolic events during a GTT in mice with those performed in humans.

Methods

Stable isotope labelled oral glucose tolerance tests (siOGTTs; [6,6-2H2]glucose) were performed in both human and mouse cohorts to provide greater resolution into postprandial glucose kinetics. The siOGTT allows for the partitioning of circulating glucose into that derived from exogenous and endogenous sources. Young adults spanning the spectrum of normal glucose tolerance (n = 221), impaired fasting (n = 14), and impaired glucose tolerance (n = 19) underwent a 75g siOGTT, whereas a 50 mg siOGTT was performed on chow (n = 43) and high-fat high-sucrose fed C57Bl6 male mice (n = 46).

Results

During the siOGTT in humans, there is a long period (>3hr) of glucose absorptionand, accordingly, a large, sustained insulin response and robust suppression of lipolysis and endogenous glucose production (EGP), even in the presence of glucose intolerance. In contrast, mice appear to be highly reliant on glucose effectiveness to clear exogenous glucose and experience only modest, transient insulin responses with little, if any, suppression of EGP. In addition to the impaired stimulation of glucose uptake, mice with the worst glucose tolerance appear to have a paradoxical and persistent rise in EGP during the OGTT, likely related to handling stress.

Conclusions

The metabolic response to the OGTT in mice and humans is highly divergent. The potential reasons for these differences and their impact on the interpretation of mouse glucose tolerance data and their translation to humans are discussed.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

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