Cover Story Current Issue

White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ that plays a central role in systemic energy balance through its interrelated metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. Adipocytes, the parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, have diverse functions that include storage and mobilization of lipids. They also release endocrine signals that report energy status to the brain, regulating metabolic functions in peripheral organs. Importantly, the metabolic character of white adipocytes is flexible, with cells capable of assuming distinct anabolic and catabolic/thermogenic phenotypes, often within the same adipose tissue depot

Elizabeth A. Rondini, Vanesa D. Ramseyer, Rayanne B. Burl, Roger Pique-Regi, James G. Granneman

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Current Issue

Histone H3K9 butyrylation is regulated by dietary fat and stress via an Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short chain-dependent mechanism

Zhi Yang, Minzhen He, Julianne Austin, Jessica Pfleger, Maha Abdellatif

Objective

We previously reported that β-oxidation enzymes are present in the nucleus in close proximity to transcriptionally active promoters. Thus, we hypothesized that the fatty acid intermediate, butyryl-CoA, is the substrate for histone butyrylation and its abundance is regulated by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short chain (ACADS). The objective of this study was to determine the genomic distribution of H3K9-butyryl (H3K9Bu) and its regulation by dietary fat, stress, and ACADS and its impact on gene expression.

Methods and results

Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP–Seq), we show that H3K9Bu is abundant at all transcriptionally active promoters, where, paradoxically, it is most enriched in mice fed a fat-free vs high-fat diet. Deletion of fatty acid synthetase (FASN) abolished H3K9Bu in cells maintained in a glucose-rich but not fatty acid-rich medium, signifying that fatty acid synthesis from carbohydrates substitutes for dietary fat as a source of butyryl-CoA. A high-fat diet induced an increase in ACADS expression that accompanied the decrease in H3K9Bu. Conversely, the deletion of ACADS increased H3K9Bu in human cells and mouse hearts and reversed high-fat- and stress-induced reduction in promoter-H3K9Bu, whose abundance coincided with diminished stress-regulated gene expression as revealed by RNA sequencing. In contrast, H3K9-acetyl (H3K9Ac) abundance was minimally impacted by diet.

Conclusion

Promoter H3K9 butyrylation is a major histone modification that is negatively regulated by high fat and stress in an ACADS-dependent fashion and moderates stress-regulated gene expression.

Histone H3K9 butyrylation is regulated by dietary fat and stress via an Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short chain-dependent mechanism

Zhi Yang, Minzhen He, Julianne Austin, Jessica Pfleger, Maha Abdellatif

Objective

We previously reported that β-oxidation enzymes are present in the nucleus in close proximity to transcriptionally active promoters. Thus, we hypothesized that the fatty acid intermediate, butyryl-CoA, is the substrate for histone butyrylation and its abundance is regulated by acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short chain (ACADS). The objective of this study was to determine the genomic distribution of H3K9-butyryl (H3K9Bu) and its regulation by dietary fat, stress, and ACADS and its impact on gene expression.

Methods and results

Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP–Seq), we show that H3K9Bu is abundant at all transcriptionally active promoters, where, paradoxically, it is most enriched in mice fed a fat-free vs high-fat diet. Deletion of fatty acid synthetase (FASN) abolished H3K9Bu in cells maintained in a glucose-rich but not fatty acid-rich medium, signifying that fatty acid synthesis from carbohydrates substitutes for dietary fat as a source of butyryl-CoA. A high-fat diet induced an increase in ACADS expression that accompanied the decrease in H3K9Bu. Conversely, the deletion of ACADS increased H3K9Bu in human cells and mouse hearts and reversed high-fat- and stress-induced reduction in promoter-H3K9Bu, whose abundance coincided with diminished stress-regulated gene expression as revealed by RNA sequencing. In contrast, H3K9-acetyl (H3K9Ac) abundance was minimally impacted by diet.

Conclusion

Promoter H3K9 butyrylation is a major histone modification that is negatively regulated by high fat and stress in an ACADS-dependent fashion and moderates stress-regulated gene expression.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

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