Cover Story Current Issue

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are known as incretins, which are released from the gut into the bloodstream postprandially and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion via activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the GIP receptor (GIPR), respectively. Several GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) with improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed and are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to improving glucose metabolism, GLP-1RAs potently suppress appetite and body weight. These anorectic and body weight-lowering effects are thought to be mediated by central mechanisms, as indicated also by human studies. However, the neuronal substrates that mediate these effects are still poorly understood.

Alessia Costa, Minrong Ai, Nicolas Nunn, Isabella Culotta, ... Giuseppe D'Agostino

Full text

 

Current Issue

Targeting the T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 in GABAergic arcuate nucleus neurons to treat obesity

Bing Feng, Jerney Harms, Nirali Patel, Hui Ye, ... Yanlin He

Objective

Cav3.2, a T-type low voltage-activated calcium channel widely expressed throughout the central nervous system, plays a vital role in neuronal excitability and various physiological functions. However, the effects of Cav3.2 on energy homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of Cav3.2 expressed by hypothalamic GABAergic neurons in the regulation of food intake and body weight in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms.

Methods

Male congenital Cana1h (the gene coding for Cav3.2) global knockout (Cav3.2KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were first used for metabolic phenotyping studies. By using the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, Cav3.2 was selectively deleted from GABAergic neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) by specifically overexpressing Cas9 protein and Cav3.2-targeting sgRNAs in ARH Vgat (VgatARH) neurons. These male mutants (Cav3.2KO-VgatARH) were used to determine whether Cav3.2 expressed by VgatARH neurons is required for the proper regulation of energy balance. Subsequently, we used an electrophysiological patch-clamp recording in ex vivo brain slices to explore the impact of Cav3.2KO on the cellular excitability of VgatARH neurons.

Results

Male Cav3.2KO mice had significantly lower food intake than their WT littermate controls when fed with either a normal chow diet (NCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). This hypophagia phenotype was associated with increased energy expenditure and decreased fat mass, lean mass, and total body weight. Selective deletion of Cav3.2 in VgatARH neurons resulted in similar feeding inhibition and lean phenotype without changing energy expenditure. These data provides an intrinsic mechanism to support the previous finding on ARH non-AgRP GABA neurons in regulating diet-induced obesity. Lastly, we found that naringenin extract, a predominant flavanone found in various fruits and herbs and known to act on Cav3.2, decreased the firing activity of VgatARH neurons and reduced food intake and body weight. These naringenin-induced inhibitions were fully blocked in Cav3.2KO-VgatARH mice.

Conclusion

Our results identified Cav3.2 expressed by VgatARH neurons as an essential intrinsic modulator for food intake and energy homeostasis, which is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity.

 

Targeting the T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 in GABAergic arcuate nucleus neurons to treat obesity

Bing Feng, Jerney Harms, Nirali Patel, Hui Ye, ... Yanlin He

Objective

Cav3.2, a T-type low voltage-activated calcium channel widely expressed throughout the central nervous system, plays a vital role in neuronal excitability and various physiological functions. However, the effects of Cav3.2 on energy homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of Cav3.2 expressed by hypothalamic GABAergic neurons in the regulation of food intake and body weight in mice and explored the underlying mechanisms.

Methods

Male congenital Cana1h (the gene coding for Cav3.2) global knockout (Cav3.2KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates were first used for metabolic phenotyping studies. By using the CRISPR-Cas9 technique, Cav3.2 was selectively deleted from GABAergic neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) by specifically overexpressing Cas9 protein and Cav3.2-targeting sgRNAs in ARH Vgat (VgatARH) neurons. These male mutants (Cav3.2KO-VgatARH) were used to determine whether Cav3.2 expressed by VgatARH neurons is required for the proper regulation of energy balance. Subsequently, we used an electrophysiological patch-clamp recording in ex vivo brain slices to explore the impact of Cav3.2KO on the cellular excitability of VgatARH neurons.

Results

Male Cav3.2KO mice had significantly lower food intake than their WT littermate controls when fed with either a normal chow diet (NCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). This hypophagia phenotype was associated with increased energy expenditure and decreased fat mass, lean mass, and total body weight. Selective deletion of Cav3.2 in VgatARH neurons resulted in similar feeding inhibition and lean phenotype without changing energy expenditure. These data provides an intrinsic mechanism to support the previous finding on ARH non-AgRP GABA neurons in regulating diet-induced obesity. Lastly, we found that naringenin extract, a predominant flavanone found in various fruits and herbs and known to act on Cav3.2, decreased the firing activity of VgatARH neurons and reduced food intake and body weight. These naringenin-induced inhibitions were fully blocked in Cav3.2KO-VgatARH mice.

Conclusion

Our results identified Cav3.2 expressed by VgatARH neurons as an essential intrinsic modulator for food intake and energy homeostasis, which is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity.

 

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

Watch the most recent interviews by clicking the video still. 

Here is a video of Vimeo. When the iframes is activated, a connection to Vimeo is established and, if necessary, cookies from Vimeo are also used. For further information on cookies policy click here.

Here is a video of Vimeo. When the iframes is activated, a connection to Vimeo is established and, if necessary, cookies from Vimeo are also used. For further information on cookies policy click here.