Cover Story Current Issue

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are known as incretins, which are released from the gut into the bloodstream postprandially and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion via activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the GIP receptor (GIPR), respectively. Several GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) with improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed and are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to improving glucose metabolism, GLP-1RAs potently suppress appetite and body weight. These anorectic and body weight-lowering effects are thought to be mediated by central mechanisms, as indicated also by human studies. However, the neuronal substrates that mediate these effects are still poorly understood.

Alessia Costa, Minrong Ai, Nicolas Nunn, Isabella Culotta, ... Giuseppe D'Agostino

Full text

 

Current Issue

The Ile191Val is a partial loss-of-function variant of the TAS1R2 sweet-taste receptor and is associated with reduced glucose excursions in humans

Joan Serrano, Jaroslava Seflova, Jihye Park, Marsha Pribadi, ... George A. Kyriazis

 

Objective

Sweet taste receptors (STR) are expressed in the gut and other extra-oral tissues, suggesting that STR-mediated nutrient sensing may contribute to human physiology beyond taste. A common variant (Ile191Val) in the TAS1R2 gene of STR is associated with nutritional and metabolic outcomes independent of changes in taste perception. It is unclear whether this polymorphism directly alters STR function and how it may contribute to metabolic regulation.

Methods

We implemented a combination of in vitro biochemical approaches to decipher the effects of TAS1R2 polymorphism on STR function. Then, as proof-of-concept, we assessed its effects on glucose homeostasis in apparently healthy lean participants.

Results

The Ile191Val variant causes a partial loss of function of TAS1R2 through reduced receptor availability in the plasma membrane. Val minor allele carriers have reduced glucose excursions during an OGTT, mirroring effects previously seen in mice with genetic loss of function of TAS1R2. These effects were not due to differences in beta-cell function or insulin sensitivity.

Conclusions

Our pilot studies on a common TAS1R2 polymorphism suggest that STR sensory function in peripheral tissues, such as the intestine, may contribute to the regulation of metabolic control in humans.

The Ile191Val is a partial loss-of-function variant of the TAS1R2 sweet-taste receptor and is associated with reduced glucose excursions in humans

Joan Serrano, Jaroslava Seflova, Jihye Park, Marsha Pribadi, ... George A. Kyriazis

 

Objective

Sweet taste receptors (STR) are expressed in the gut and other extra-oral tissues, suggesting that STR-mediated nutrient sensing may contribute to human physiology beyond taste. A common variant (Ile191Val) in the TAS1R2 gene of STR is associated with nutritional and metabolic outcomes independent of changes in taste perception. It is unclear whether this polymorphism directly alters STR function and how it may contribute to metabolic regulation.

Methods

We implemented a combination of in vitro biochemical approaches to decipher the effects of TAS1R2 polymorphism on STR function. Then, as proof-of-concept, we assessed its effects on glucose homeostasis in apparently healthy lean participants.

Results

The Ile191Val variant causes a partial loss of function of TAS1R2 through reduced receptor availability in the plasma membrane. Val minor allele carriers have reduced glucose excursions during an OGTT, mirroring effects previously seen in mice with genetic loss of function of TAS1R2. These effects were not due to differences in beta-cell function or insulin sensitivity.

Conclusions

Our pilot studies on a common TAS1R2 polymorphism suggest that STR sensory function in peripheral tissues, such as the intestine, may contribute to the regulation of metabolic control in humans.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

Watch the most recent interviews by clicking the video still. 

Here is a video of Vimeo. When the iframes is activated, a connection to Vimeo is established and, if necessary, cookies from Vimeo are also used. For further information on cookies policy click here.

Here is a video of Vimeo. When the iframes is activated, a connection to Vimeo is established and, if necessary, cookies from Vimeo are also used. For further information on cookies policy click here.