Cover Story Current Issue

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a set of pathologies associated with ectopic lipid accumulationin hepatocytes. NAFLD can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an inflammatory condition which is increasing in prevalence in parallel with other diseases connected to lipid metabolism, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. NASH is characterized by hepatic necrosis, increased inflammatory signaling, immune cell infiltration, and the potential to progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ultimately liver failure.

David Montefusco, Maryam Jamil, Melissa A. Maczis, William Schroeder, ... L. Ashley Cowart

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Current Issue

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction to promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis

Sandip Mukherjee, Molee Chakraborty, Barbara Ulmasov, Kyle McCommis, ... Anutosh Chakraborty

Objective

Obesity and insulin resistance greatly increase the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis(NAFLD/NASH). We have previously discovered that whole-body and adipocyte-specific Ip6k1deletion protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to improved adipocyte thermogenesis and insulin signaling. Here, we aimed to determine the impact of hepatocyte-specific and whole-body Ip6k1 deletion (HKO and Ip6k1-KO or KO) on liver metabolism and NAFLD/NASH.

Methods

Body weight and composition; energy expenditure; glycemic profiles; and serum and liver metabolic, inflammatory, fibrotic and toxicity parameters were assessed in mice fed Western and high-fructose diet (HFrD) (WD: 40% kcal fat, 1.25% cholesterol, no added choline and HFrD: 60% kcal fructose). Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was evaluated in isolated hepatocytes. RNA-Seq was performed in liver samples. Livers from human NASH patients were analyzed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry.

Results

HKO mice displayed increased hepatocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity and improved insulin sensitivity but were not resistant to body weight gain. Improved hepatocyte metabolism partially protected HKO mice from NAFLD/NASH. In contrast, enhanced whole-body metabolism and reduced body fat accumulation significantly protected whole-body Ip6k1-KO mice from NAFLD/NASH. Mitochondrial oxidative pathways were upregulated, whereas gluconeogenic and fibrogenic pathways were downregulated in Ip6k1-KO livers. Furthermore, IP6K1 was upregulated in human NASH livers and interacted with the enzyme O-GlcNAcase that reduces protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation was found to be reduced in Ip6k1-KO and HKO mouse livers.

Conclusion

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 in the liver and other metabolic tissues mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction and NAFLD/NASH, and thus IP6K1 deletion may be a potential treatment target for this disease.

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction to promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis

Sandip Mukherjee, Molee Chakraborty, Barbara Ulmasov, Kyle McCommis, ... Anutosh Chakraborty

Objective

Obesity and insulin resistance greatly increase the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis(NAFLD/NASH). We have previously discovered that whole-body and adipocyte-specific Ip6k1deletion protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to improved adipocyte thermogenesis and insulin signaling. Here, we aimed to determine the impact of hepatocyte-specific and whole-body Ip6k1 deletion (HKO and Ip6k1-KO or KO) on liver metabolism and NAFLD/NASH.

Methods

Body weight and composition; energy expenditure; glycemic profiles; and serum and liver metabolic, inflammatory, fibrotic and toxicity parameters were assessed in mice fed Western and high-fructose diet (HFrD) (WD: 40% kcal fat, 1.25% cholesterol, no added choline and HFrD: 60% kcal fructose). Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was evaluated in isolated hepatocytes. RNA-Seq was performed in liver samples. Livers from human NASH patients were analyzed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry.

Results

HKO mice displayed increased hepatocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity and improved insulin sensitivity but were not resistant to body weight gain. Improved hepatocyte metabolism partially protected HKO mice from NAFLD/NASH. In contrast, enhanced whole-body metabolism and reduced body fat accumulation significantly protected whole-body Ip6k1-KO mice from NAFLD/NASH. Mitochondrial oxidative pathways were upregulated, whereas gluconeogenic and fibrogenic pathways were downregulated in Ip6k1-KO livers. Furthermore, IP6K1 was upregulated in human NASH livers and interacted with the enzyme O-GlcNAcase that reduces protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation was found to be reduced in Ip6k1-KO and HKO mouse livers.

Conclusion

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 in the liver and other metabolic tissues mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction and NAFLD/NASH, and thus IP6K1 deletion may be a potential treatment target for this disease.

2021 impact factor: 8.568

The 60 Second Metabolist

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