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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are known as incretins, which are released from the gut into the bloodstream postprandially and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion via activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the GIP receptor (GIPR), respectively. Several GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) with improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed and are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to improving glucose metabolism, GLP-1RAs potently suppress appetite and body weight. These anorectic and body weight-lowering effects are thought to be mediated by central mechanisms, as indicated also by human studies. However, the neuronal substrates that mediate these effects are still poorly understood.

Alessia Costa, Minrong Ai, Nicolas Nunn, Isabella Culotta, ... Giuseppe D'Agostino

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Current Issue

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction to promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis

Sandip Mukherjee, Molee Chakraborty, Barbara Ulmasov, Kyle McCommis, ... Anutosh Chakraborty

Objective

Obesity and insulin resistance greatly increase the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis(NAFLD/NASH). We have previously discovered that whole-body and adipocyte-specific Ip6k1deletion protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to improved adipocyte thermogenesis and insulin signaling. Here, we aimed to determine the impact of hepatocyte-specific and whole-body Ip6k1 deletion (HKO and Ip6k1-KO or KO) on liver metabolism and NAFLD/NASH.

Methods

Body weight and composition; energy expenditure; glycemic profiles; and serum and liver metabolic, inflammatory, fibrotic and toxicity parameters were assessed in mice fed Western and high-fructose diet (HFrD) (WD: 40% kcal fat, 1.25% cholesterol, no added choline and HFrD: 60% kcal fructose). Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was evaluated in isolated hepatocytes. RNA-Seq was performed in liver samples. Livers from human NASH patients were analyzed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry.

Results

HKO mice displayed increased hepatocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity and improved insulin sensitivity but were not resistant to body weight gain. Improved hepatocyte metabolism partially protected HKO mice from NAFLD/NASH. In contrast, enhanced whole-body metabolism and reduced body fat accumulation significantly protected whole-body Ip6k1-KO mice from NAFLD/NASH. Mitochondrial oxidative pathways were upregulated, whereas gluconeogenic and fibrogenic pathways were downregulated in Ip6k1-KO livers. Furthermore, IP6K1 was upregulated in human NASH livers and interacted with the enzyme O-GlcNAcase that reduces protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation was found to be reduced in Ip6k1-KO and HKO mouse livers.

Conclusion

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 in the liver and other metabolic tissues mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction and NAFLD/NASH, and thus IP6K1 deletion may be a potential treatment target for this disease.

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction to promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis

Sandip Mukherjee, Molee Chakraborty, Barbara Ulmasov, Kyle McCommis, ... Anutosh Chakraborty

Objective

Obesity and insulin resistance greatly increase the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis(NAFLD/NASH). We have previously discovered that whole-body and adipocyte-specific Ip6k1deletion protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to improved adipocyte thermogenesis and insulin signaling. Here, we aimed to determine the impact of hepatocyte-specific and whole-body Ip6k1 deletion (HKO and Ip6k1-KO or KO) on liver metabolism and NAFLD/NASH.

Methods

Body weight and composition; energy expenditure; glycemic profiles; and serum and liver metabolic, inflammatory, fibrotic and toxicity parameters were assessed in mice fed Western and high-fructose diet (HFrD) (WD: 40% kcal fat, 1.25% cholesterol, no added choline and HFrD: 60% kcal fructose). Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was evaluated in isolated hepatocytes. RNA-Seq was performed in liver samples. Livers from human NASH patients were analyzed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry.

Results

HKO mice displayed increased hepatocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity and improved insulin sensitivity but were not resistant to body weight gain. Improved hepatocyte metabolism partially protected HKO mice from NAFLD/NASH. In contrast, enhanced whole-body metabolism and reduced body fat accumulation significantly protected whole-body Ip6k1-KO mice from NAFLD/NASH. Mitochondrial oxidative pathways were upregulated, whereas gluconeogenic and fibrogenic pathways were downregulated in Ip6k1-KO livers. Furthermore, IP6K1 was upregulated in human NASH livers and interacted with the enzyme O-GlcNAcase that reduces protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation was found to be reduced in Ip6k1-KO and HKO mouse livers.

Conclusion

Pleiotropic actions of IP6K1 in the liver and other metabolic tissues mediate hepatic metabolic dysfunction and NAFLD/NASH, and thus IP6K1 deletion may be a potential treatment target for this disease.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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