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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are known as incretins, which are released from the gut into the bloodstream postprandially and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion via activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the GIP receptor (GIPR), respectively. Several GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) with improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed and are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to improving glucose metabolism, GLP-1RAs potently suppress appetite and body weight. These anorectic and body weight-lowering effects are thought to be mediated by central mechanisms, as indicated also by human studies. However, the neuronal substrates that mediate these effects are still poorly understood.

Alessia Costa, Minrong Ai, Nicolas Nunn, Isabella Culotta, ... Giuseppe D'Agostino

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Current Issue

Requirement of Cavin-2 for the expression and stability of IRβ in adequate adipocyte differentiation

Yusuke Higuchi, Takehiro Ogata, Naohiko Nakanishi, Masahiro Nishi, ... Satoaki Matoba

Objective

Adipogenesis plays an essential role in maintaining energy and hormonal balance. Cavin-2, one of the caveolae-related proteins, is abundant in adipocytes, the leading site of adipogenesis. However, the details of the roles of Cavin-2 in adipogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate the requirement of Cavin-2 for the expression and stability of IRβ in adequate adipocyte differentiation.

Methods

Cavin-2 knockout (Cavin-2 KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. We evaluated body weight, food intake, and several tissues. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Insulin signaling in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) was determined by Akt phosphorylation. In vitro study, we evaluated adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis-related genes, and insulin signaling to clarify the relationship between Cavin-2 and adipogenesis under the manipulation of Cavin-2 expression.

Results

Caveolae structure decreased in eWAT of Cavin-2 KO mice and Cavin-2 knockdown 3T3-L1 cells. Cavin-2 enhanced the stability of insulin receptor (IR) through direct association at the plasma membrane in adipocytes, resulting in accelerated insulin/IR/Akt signaling-induced adipogenic gene expression in insulin-containing solution-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. IR-mediated Akt activation also enhanced Cavin-2 and IR expression. Cavin-2 knockout mice showed insulin resistance with dyslipidemia and pathological hypertrophic adipocytes after a HFD.

Conclusions

Cavin-2 enhances IR stability through binding IR and regulates insulin signaling, promoting adequate adipocyte differentiation. Our findings highlight the pivotal role of Cavin-2 in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, which may help to develop novel therapies for pathological obesity and adipogenic disorders.

 

Requirement of Cavin-2 for the expression and stability of IRβ in adequate adipocyte differentiation

Yusuke Higuchi, Takehiro Ogata, Naohiko Nakanishi, Masahiro Nishi, ... Satoaki Matoba

Objective

Adipogenesis plays an essential role in maintaining energy and hormonal balance. Cavin-2, one of the caveolae-related proteins, is abundant in adipocytes, the leading site of adipogenesis. However, the details of the roles of Cavin-2 in adipogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate the requirement of Cavin-2 for the expression and stability of IRβ in adequate adipocyte differentiation.

Methods

Cavin-2 knockout (Cavin-2 KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. We evaluated body weight, food intake, and several tissues. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Insulin signaling in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) was determined by Akt phosphorylation. In vitro study, we evaluated adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis-related genes, and insulin signaling to clarify the relationship between Cavin-2 and adipogenesis under the manipulation of Cavin-2 expression.

Results

Caveolae structure decreased in eWAT of Cavin-2 KO mice and Cavin-2 knockdown 3T3-L1 cells. Cavin-2 enhanced the stability of insulin receptor (IR) through direct association at the plasma membrane in adipocytes, resulting in accelerated insulin/IR/Akt signaling-induced adipogenic gene expression in insulin-containing solution-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. IR-mediated Akt activation also enhanced Cavin-2 and IR expression. Cavin-2 knockout mice showed insulin resistance with dyslipidemia and pathological hypertrophic adipocytes after a HFD.

Conclusions

Cavin-2 enhances IR stability through binding IR and regulates insulin signaling, promoting adequate adipocyte differentiation. Our findings highlight the pivotal role of Cavin-2 in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, which may help to develop novel therapies for pathological obesity and adipogenic disorders.

 

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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