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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are known as incretins, which are released from the gut into the bloodstream postprandially and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion via activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the GIP receptor (GIPR), respectively. Several GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) with improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed and are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to improving glucose metabolism, GLP-1RAs potently suppress appetite and body weight. These anorectic and body weight-lowering effects are thought to be mediated by central mechanisms, as indicated also by human studies. However, the neuronal substrates that mediate these effects are still poorly understood.

Alessia Costa, Minrong Ai, Nicolas Nunn, Isabella Culotta, ... Giuseppe D'Agostino

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Peptide-YY3-36/glucagon-like peptide-1 combination treatment of obese diabetic mice improves insulin sensitivity associated with recovered pancreatic β-cell function and synergistic activation of discrete hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuitries

Brandon B. Boland, Rhianna C. Laker, Siobhan O'Brien, Sadichha Sitaula, ... Christopher J. Rhodes

Objective

Obesity-linked type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide health concern and many novel approaches are being considered for its treatment and subsequent prevention of serious comorbidities. Co-administration of glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) renders a synergistic decrease in energy intake in obese men. However, mechanistic details of the synergy between these peptide agonists and their effects on metabolic homeostasis remain relatively scarce.

Methods

In this study, we utilized long-acting analogues of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 (via Fc-peptide conjugation) to better characterize the synergistic pharmacological benefits of their co-administration on body weight and glycaemic regulation in obese and diabetic mouse models. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were used to measure weight-independent effects of Fc-PYY3-36 + Fc-GLP-1 on insulin action. Fluorescent light sheet microscopy analysis of whole brain was performed to assess activation of brain regions.

Results

Co-administration of long-acting Fc-IgG/peptide conjugates of Fc-GLP-1 and Fc-PYY3-36 (specific for PYY receptor-2 (Y2R)) resulted in profound weight loss, restored glucose homeostasis, and recovered endogenous β-cell function in two mouse models of obese T2D. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in C57BLKS/J db/dband diet-induced obese Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) mice indicated Y2R is required for a weight-independent improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity and enhanced hepatic glycogenesis. Brain cFos staining demonstrated distinct temporal activation of regions of the hypothalamus and hindbrain following Fc-PYY3-36 + Fc-GLP-1R agonist administration.

Conclusions

These results reveal a therapeutic approach for obesity/T2D that improved insulin sensitivity and restored endogenous β-cell function. These data also highlight the potential association between the gut–brain axis in control of metabolic homeostasis.

Peptide-YY3-36/glucagon-like peptide-1 combination treatment of obese diabetic mice improves insulin sensitivity associated with recovered pancreatic β-cell function and synergistic activation of discrete hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuitries

Brandon B. Boland, Rhianna C. Laker, Siobhan O'Brien, Sadichha Sitaula, ... Christopher J. Rhodes

Objective

Obesity-linked type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide health concern and many novel approaches are being considered for its treatment and subsequent prevention of serious comorbidities. Co-administration of glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) renders a synergistic decrease in energy intake in obese men. However, mechanistic details of the synergy between these peptide agonists and their effects on metabolic homeostasis remain relatively scarce.

Methods

In this study, we utilized long-acting analogues of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 (via Fc-peptide conjugation) to better characterize the synergistic pharmacological benefits of their co-administration on body weight and glycaemic regulation in obese and diabetic mouse models. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were used to measure weight-independent effects of Fc-PYY3-36 + Fc-GLP-1 on insulin action. Fluorescent light sheet microscopy analysis of whole brain was performed to assess activation of brain regions.

Results

Co-administration of long-acting Fc-IgG/peptide conjugates of Fc-GLP-1 and Fc-PYY3-36 (specific for PYY receptor-2 (Y2R)) resulted in profound weight loss, restored glucose homeostasis, and recovered endogenous β-cell function in two mouse models of obese T2D. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in C57BLKS/J db/dband diet-induced obese Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) mice indicated Y2R is required for a weight-independent improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity and enhanced hepatic glycogenesis. Brain cFos staining demonstrated distinct temporal activation of regions of the hypothalamus and hindbrain following Fc-PYY3-36 + Fc-GLP-1R agonist administration.

Conclusions

These results reveal a therapeutic approach for obesity/T2D that improved insulin sensitivity and restored endogenous β-cell function. These data also highlight the potential association between the gut–brain axis in control of metabolic homeostasis.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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