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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a set of pathologies associated with ectopic lipid accumulationin hepatocytes. NAFLD can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an inflammatory condition which is increasing in prevalence in parallel with other diseases connected to lipid metabolism, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. NASH is characterized by hepatic necrosis, increased inflammatory signaling, immune cell infiltration, and the potential to progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ultimately liver failure.

David Montefusco, Maryam Jamil, Melissa A. Maczis, William Schroeder, ... L. Ashley Cowart

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The activity of glyoxylase 1 is regulated by glucose-responsive phosphorylation on Tyr136

Fabiola Garcia Cortizo, Daniel Pfaff, Angela Wirth, Andrea Schlotterer, ... Aurelio A. Teleman

Objective

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde that glycates proteins. MG has been linked to the development of diabetic complications: MG is the major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a risk marker for diabetic complications in humans. Furthermore, flies and fish with elevated MG develop insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. MG is detoxified in large part through the glyoxalase system, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glyoxalase I (Glo1). Hence, we aimed to study how Glo1 activity is regulated.

Methods

We studied the regulation and effect of post-translational modifications of Glo1 in tissue culture and in mouse models of diabetes.

Results

We show that Glo1 activity is promoted by phosphorylation on Tyrosine 136 via multiple kinases. We find that Glo1 Y136 phosphorylation responds in a bimodal fashion to glucose levels, increasing in cell culture from 0 mM to 5 mM (physiological) glucose, and then decreasing at higher glucose concentrations, both in cell culture and in mouse models of hyperglycemia.

Conclusions

These data, together with published findings that elevated MG leads to hyperglycemia, suggest the existence of a deleterious positive feedback loop whereby hyperglycemia leads to reduced Glo1 activity, contributing to elevated MG levels, which in turn promote hyperglycemia. Hence, perturbations elevating either glucose or MG have the potential to start an auto-amplifying feedback loop contributing to diabetic complications.

The activity of glyoxylase 1 is regulated by glucose-responsive phosphorylation on Tyr136

Fabiola Garcia Cortizo, Daniel Pfaff, Angela Wirth, Andrea Schlotterer, ... Aurelio A. Teleman

Objective

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde that glycates proteins. MG has been linked to the development of diabetic complications: MG is the major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a risk marker for diabetic complications in humans. Furthermore, flies and fish with elevated MG develop insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. MG is detoxified in large part through the glyoxalase system, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glyoxalase I (Glo1). Hence, we aimed to study how Glo1 activity is regulated.

Methods

We studied the regulation and effect of post-translational modifications of Glo1 in tissue culture and in mouse models of diabetes.

Results

We show that Glo1 activity is promoted by phosphorylation on Tyrosine 136 via multiple kinases. We find that Glo1 Y136 phosphorylation responds in a bimodal fashion to glucose levels, increasing in cell culture from 0 mM to 5 mM (physiological) glucose, and then decreasing at higher glucose concentrations, both in cell culture and in mouse models of hyperglycemia.

Conclusions

These data, together with published findings that elevated MG leads to hyperglycemia, suggest the existence of a deleterious positive feedback loop whereby hyperglycemia leads to reduced Glo1 activity, contributing to elevated MG levels, which in turn promote hyperglycemia. Hence, perturbations elevating either glucose or MG have the potential to start an auto-amplifying feedback loop contributing to diabetic complications.

2021 impact factor: 8.568

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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