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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are known as incretins, which are released from the gut into the bloodstream postprandially and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion via activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the GIP receptor (GIPR), respectively. Several GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) with improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed and are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to improving glucose metabolism, GLP-1RAs potently suppress appetite and body weight. These anorectic and body weight-lowering effects are thought to be mediated by central mechanisms, as indicated also by human studies. However, the neuronal substrates that mediate these effects are still poorly understood.

Alessia Costa, Minrong Ai, Nicolas Nunn, Isabella Culotta, ... Giuseppe D'Agostino

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Current Issue

Deletion of ABCB10 in beta-cells protects from high-fat diet induced insulin resistance

Michael Shum, Mayuko Segawa, Raffi Gharakhanian, Ana Viñuela, ... Marc Liesa

Objective

The contribution of beta-cell dysfunction to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not restricted to insulinopenia in the late stages of the disease. Elevated fasting insulinemia in normoglycemic humans is a major factor predicting the onset of insulin resistance and T2D, demonstrating an early alteration of beta-cell function in T2D. Moreover, an early and chronic increase in fasting insulinemia contributes to insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, whether there are genetic factors that promote beta-cell-initiated insulin resistance remains undefined. Human variants of the mitochondrial transporter ABCB10, which regulates redox by increasing bilirubin synthesis, have been associated with an elevated risk of T2D. The effects of T2D ABCB10 variants on ABCB10 expression and the actions of ABCB10 in beta-cells are unknown.

Methods

The expression of beta-cell ABCB10 was analyzed in published transcriptomedatasets from human beta-cells carrying the T2D-risk ABCB10 variant. Insulin sensitivity, beta-cell proliferation, and secretory function were measured in beta-cell-specific ABCB10 KO mice (Ins1Cre-Abcb10flox/flox). The short-term role of beta-cell ABCB10 activity on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was determined in isolated islets.

Results

Carrying the T2Drisk allele G of ABCB10 rs348330 variant was associated with increased ABCB10 expression in human beta-cells. Constitutive deletion of Abcb10in beta-cells protected mice from hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance by limiting HFD-induced beta-cell expansion. An early limitation in GSIS and H2O2-mediated signaling caused by elevated ABCB10 activity can initiate an over-compensatory expansion of beta-cell mass in response to HFD. Accordingly, increasing ABCB10 expression was sufficient to limit GSIS capacity. In health, ABCB10 protein was decreased during islet maturation, with maturation restricting beta-cell proliferation and elevating GSIS. Finally, ex-vivo and short-term deletion of ABCB10 in islets isolated from HFD-fed mice increased H2O2 and GSIS, which was reversed by bilirubin treatments.

Conclusions

Beta-cell ABCB10 is required for HFD to induce insulin resistance in mice by amplifying beta-cell mass expansion to maladaptive levels that cause fasting hyperinsulinemia.

Deletion of ABCB10 in beta-cells protects from high-fat diet induced insulin resistance

Michael Shum, Mayuko Segawa, Raffi Gharakhanian, Ana Viñuela, ... Marc Liesa

Objective

The contribution of beta-cell dysfunction to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not restricted to insulinopenia in the late stages of the disease. Elevated fasting insulinemia in normoglycemic humans is a major factor predicting the onset of insulin resistance and T2D, demonstrating an early alteration of beta-cell function in T2D. Moreover, an early and chronic increase in fasting insulinemia contributes to insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, whether there are genetic factors that promote beta-cell-initiated insulin resistance remains undefined. Human variants of the mitochondrial transporter ABCB10, which regulates redox by increasing bilirubin synthesis, have been associated with an elevated risk of T2D. The effects of T2D ABCB10 variants on ABCB10 expression and the actions of ABCB10 in beta-cells are unknown.

Methods

The expression of beta-cell ABCB10 was analyzed in published transcriptomedatasets from human beta-cells carrying the T2D-risk ABCB10 variant. Insulin sensitivity, beta-cell proliferation, and secretory function were measured in beta-cell-specific ABCB10 KO mice (Ins1Cre-Abcb10flox/flox). The short-term role of beta-cell ABCB10 activity on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was determined in isolated islets.

Results

Carrying the T2Drisk allele G of ABCB10 rs348330 variant was associated with increased ABCB10 expression in human beta-cells. Constitutive deletion of Abcb10in beta-cells protected mice from hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance by limiting HFD-induced beta-cell expansion. An early limitation in GSIS and H2O2-mediated signaling caused by elevated ABCB10 activity can initiate an over-compensatory expansion of beta-cell mass in response to HFD. Accordingly, increasing ABCB10 expression was sufficient to limit GSIS capacity. In health, ABCB10 protein was decreased during islet maturation, with maturation restricting beta-cell proliferation and elevating GSIS. Finally, ex-vivo and short-term deletion of ABCB10 in islets isolated from HFD-fed mice increased H2O2 and GSIS, which was reversed by bilirubin treatments.

Conclusions

Beta-cell ABCB10 is required for HFD to induce insulin resistance in mice by amplifying beta-cell mass expansion to maladaptive levels that cause fasting hyperinsulinemia.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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