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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are known as incretins, which are released from the gut into the bloodstream postprandially and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion via activation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the GIP receptor (GIPR), respectively. Several GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) with improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed and are currently in clinical use to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to improving glucose metabolism, GLP-1RAs potently suppress appetite and body weight. These anorectic and body weight-lowering effects are thought to be mediated by central mechanisms, as indicated also by human studies. However, the neuronal substrates that mediate these effects are still poorly understood.

Alessia Costa, Minrong Ai, Nicolas Nunn, Isabella Culotta, ... Giuseppe D'Agostino

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Ups and downs: The PPARγ/p-PPARγ seesaw of follistatin-like 1 and integrin receptor signaling in adipogenesis

Dongliang Fang, Xinyi Shi, Xiaowei Jia, Chun Yang, ... Yan Gao

Objective

Although Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1), as an “adipokine”, is highly expressed in preadipocytes, the detail role of FSTL1 in adipogenesis and obesity remains not fully understood.

Methods

In vitro differentiation of both Fstl1−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were measured to assess the specific role of FSTL1 in adipose differentiation. Fstl1 adipocyte-specific knockout mice were generated to evaluate its role in obesity development. Gene expression analysis and phosphorylation patterns were performed to check out the molecular mechanism of the biological function of FSTL1.

Results

FSTL1 deficiency inhibited preadipocytes differentiation in vitro and obesity development in vivo. Glycosylation at N142 site was pivotal for the biological effect of FSTL1 during adipogenesis; the conversion between PPARγ and p-PPARγ was the key factor for the function of FSTL1. Molecular mechanism studies showed that FSTL1 functions through the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that FSTL1 promotes adipogenesis by inhibiting the conversion of PPARγ to p-PPARγ through the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. Glycosylated modification at N142 of FSTL1 is the key site to exert its biological effect.

Ups and downs: The PPARγ/p-PPARγ seesaw of follistatin-like 1 and integrin receptor signaling in adipogenesis

Dongliang Fang, Xinyi Shi, Xiaowei Jia, Chun Yang, ... Yan Gao

Objective

Although Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1), as an “adipokine”, is highly expressed in preadipocytes, the detail role of FSTL1 in adipogenesis and obesity remains not fully understood.

Methods

In vitro differentiation of both Fstl1−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were measured to assess the specific role of FSTL1 in adipose differentiation. Fstl1 adipocyte-specific knockout mice were generated to evaluate its role in obesity development. Gene expression analysis and phosphorylation patterns were performed to check out the molecular mechanism of the biological function of FSTL1.

Results

FSTL1 deficiency inhibited preadipocytes differentiation in vitro and obesity development in vivo. Glycosylation at N142 site was pivotal for the biological effect of FSTL1 during adipogenesis; the conversion between PPARγ and p-PPARγ was the key factor for the function of FSTL1. Molecular mechanism studies showed that FSTL1 functions through the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that FSTL1 promotes adipogenesis by inhibiting the conversion of PPARγ to p-PPARγ through the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. Glycosylated modification at N142 of FSTL1 is the key site to exert its biological effect.

2020 impact factor: 7.4

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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