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The prevalence of obesity and type II diabetes is growing globally at rates indicating that environment rather than genes is the principal driver. Exposures to high-fat diet and toxicants, as well as micronutrient deficiency, can impact our health and that of future generations. Only now are we beginning to identify mechanisms linking these exposures to parental and offspring health. One connection between environment and health is the epigenome. The epigenome refers to the biochemical content associated with DNA that impacts gene expression and chromatin organization. Uncovering how genomic information is organized and regulated through epigenetic processes to control gene expression and cell functions in the next generation is still in a nascent stage. 

Anne-Sophie Pepin, Christine Lafleur, Romain Lambrot, Vanessa Dumeaux, Sarah Kimmins

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Current Issue

Skeletal muscle undergoes fiber type metabolic switch without myosin heavy chain switch in response to defective fatty acid oxidation

Andrea S. Pereyra, Chien-Te Lin, Daniela Mesa Sanchez, Julia Laskin, ... Jessica M. Ellis

Objective

Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous and dynamic tissue that adapts to functional demands and substrate availability by modulating muscle fiber size and type. The concept of muscle fiber type relates to its contractile (slow or fast) and metabolic (glycolytic or oxidative) properties. Here, we tested whether disruptions in muscle oxidative catabolism are sufficient to prompt parallel adaptations in energetics and contractile protein composition.

Methods

Mice with defective mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation (mLCFAO) in the skeletal muscle due to loss of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2Sk−/−) were used to model a shift in muscle macronutrient catabolism. Glycolytic and oxidative muscles of Cpt2Sk−/− mice and control littermates were compared for the expression of energy metabolism-related proteins, mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and myosin heavy chain isoform composition.

Results

Differences in bioenergetics and macronutrient utilization in response to energy demands between control muscles were intrinsic to the mitochondria, allowing for a clear distinction of muscle types. Loss of CPT2 ablated mLCFAO and resulted in mitochondrial biogenesis occurring most predominantly in oxidative muscle fibers. The metabolism-related proteomic signature of Cpt2Sk−/− oxidative muscle more closely resembled that of glycolytic muscle than of control oxidative muscle. Respectively, intrinsic substrate-supported mitochondrial respiration of CPT2 deficient oxidative muscles shifted to closely match that of glycolytic muscles. Despite this shift in mitochondrial metabolism, CPT2 deletion did not result in contractile-based fiber type switching according to myosin heavy chain composition analysis.

Conclusion

The loss of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation elicits an adaptive response involving conversion of oxidative muscle toward a metabolic profile that resembles a glycolytic muscle, but this is not accompanied by changes in myosin heavy chain isoforms. These data suggest that shifts in muscle catabolism are not sufficient to drive shifts in the contractile apparatus but are sufficient to drive adaptive changes in metabolic properties.

Skeletal muscle undergoes fiber type metabolic switch without myosin heavy chain switch in response to defective fatty acid oxidation

Andrea S. Pereyra, Chien-Te Lin, Daniela Mesa Sanchez, Julia Laskin, ... Jessica M. Ellis

Objective

Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous and dynamic tissue that adapts to functional demands and substrate availability by modulating muscle fiber size and type. The concept of muscle fiber type relates to its contractile (slow or fast) and metabolic (glycolytic or oxidative) properties. Here, we tested whether disruptions in muscle oxidative catabolism are sufficient to prompt parallel adaptations in energetics and contractile protein composition.

Methods

Mice with defective mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation (mLCFAO) in the skeletal muscle due to loss of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2Sk−/−) were used to model a shift in muscle macronutrient catabolism. Glycolytic and oxidative muscles of Cpt2Sk−/− mice and control littermates were compared for the expression of energy metabolism-related proteins, mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and myosin heavy chain isoform composition.

Results

Differences in bioenergetics and macronutrient utilization in response to energy demands between control muscles were intrinsic to the mitochondria, allowing for a clear distinction of muscle types. Loss of CPT2 ablated mLCFAO and resulted in mitochondrial biogenesis occurring most predominantly in oxidative muscle fibers. The metabolism-related proteomic signature of Cpt2Sk−/− oxidative muscle more closely resembled that of glycolytic muscle than of control oxidative muscle. Respectively, intrinsic substrate-supported mitochondrial respiration of CPT2 deficient oxidative muscles shifted to closely match that of glycolytic muscles. Despite this shift in mitochondrial metabolism, CPT2 deletion did not result in contractile-based fiber type switching according to myosin heavy chain composition analysis.

Conclusion

The loss of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation elicits an adaptive response involving conversion of oxidative muscle toward a metabolic profile that resembles a glycolytic muscle, but this is not accompanied by changes in myosin heavy chain isoforms. These data suggest that shifts in muscle catabolism are not sufficient to drive shifts in the contractile apparatus but are sufficient to drive adaptive changes in metabolic properties.

2021 impact factor: 7.422

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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