Cover Story Current Issue

Alterations in mitochondrial structure and function are commonly observed in adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. In ALS, mitochondrial dysfunction impairs the efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC) activity and ATP production and leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, abnormal handling of intracellular calcium and cytochrome C release and apoptosis. The extent to which these alterations in mitochondrial functionimpair cellular operations is unclear. Therapeutic intervention based on combating these mitochondrial abnormalities have displayed variable success in mouse models of ALS and humans, as reviewed in Vandoorne et al.

Sean-Patrick Riechers, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Tayler B. Belton, Ram P. Chakrabarty, ... Robert G. Kalb

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Current Issue

Grandmaternal exercise improves metabolic health of second-generation offspring

Ana B. Alves-Wagner, Joji Kusuyama, Pasquale Nigro, Krithika Ramachandran, ... Laurie J. Goodyear

Objective

A major factor in the growing world-wide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is the increased risk of transmission of metabolic disease from obese mothers to both first (F1) and second (F2) generation offspring. Fortunately, recent pre-clinical studies demonstrate that exercise before and during pregnancy improves F1 metabolic health, providing a potential means to disrupt this cycle of disease. Whether the beneficial effects of maternal exercise can also be transmitted to the F2 generation has not been investigated.

Methods

C57BL/6 female mice were fed a chow or high-fat diet (HFD) and housed in individual cages with or without running wheels for 2 wks before breeding and during gestation. Male F1 offspring were sedentary and chow-fed, and at 8-weeks of age were bred with age-matched females from untreated parents. This resulted in 4 F2 groups based on grandmaternal treatment: chow sedentary; chow trained; HFD sedentary; HFD trained. F2 were sedentary and chow-fed and studied up to 52-weeks of age.

Results

We find that grandmaternal exercise improves glucose tolerance and decreases fat mass in adult F2 males and females, in the absence of any treatment intervention of the F1 after birth. Grandmaternal exercise also improves F2 liver metabolic function, including favorable effects on gene and miRNA expression, triglycerideconcentrations and hepatocyte glucose production.

Conclusion

Grandmaternal exercise has beneficial effects on the metabolic health of grandoffspring, demonstrating an important means by which exercise during pregnancy could help reduce the worldwide incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Grandmaternal exercise improves metabolic health of second-generation offspring

Ana B. Alves-Wagner, Joji Kusuyama, Pasquale Nigro, Krithika Ramachandran, ... Laurie J. Goodyear

Objective

A major factor in the growing world-wide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is the increased risk of transmission of metabolic disease from obese mothers to both first (F1) and second (F2) generation offspring. Fortunately, recent pre-clinical studies demonstrate that exercise before and during pregnancy improves F1 metabolic health, providing a potential means to disrupt this cycle of disease. Whether the beneficial effects of maternal exercise can also be transmitted to the F2 generation has not been investigated.

Methods

C57BL/6 female mice were fed a chow or high-fat diet (HFD) and housed in individual cages with or without running wheels for 2 wks before breeding and during gestation. Male F1 offspring were sedentary and chow-fed, and at 8-weeks of age were bred with age-matched females from untreated parents. This resulted in 4 F2 groups based on grandmaternal treatment: chow sedentary; chow trained; HFD sedentary; HFD trained. F2 were sedentary and chow-fed and studied up to 52-weeks of age.

Results

We find that grandmaternal exercise improves glucose tolerance and decreases fat mass in adult F2 males and females, in the absence of any treatment intervention of the F1 after birth. Grandmaternal exercise also improves F2 liver metabolic function, including favorable effects on gene and miRNA expression, triglycerideconcentrations and hepatocyte glucose production.

Conclusion

Grandmaternal exercise has beneficial effects on the metabolic health of grandoffspring, demonstrating an important means by which exercise during pregnancy could help reduce the worldwide incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

2021 impact factor: 7.422

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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