Cover Story Current Issue

Alterations in mitochondrial structure and function are commonly observed in adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. In ALS, mitochondrial dysfunction impairs the efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC) activity and ATP production and leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, abnormal handling of intracellular calcium and cytochrome C release and apoptosis. The extent to which these alterations in mitochondrial functionimpair cellular operations is unclear. Therapeutic intervention based on combating these mitochondrial abnormalities have displayed variable success in mouse models of ALS and humans, as reviewed in Vandoorne et al.

Sean-Patrick Riechers, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Tayler B. Belton, Ram P. Chakrabarty, ... Robert G. Kalb

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Current Issue

Autotaxin signaling facilitates β cell dedifferentiation and dysfunction induced by Sirtuin 3 deficiency

Huanyi Cao, Arthur C.K. Chung, Xing Ming, Dandan Mao, ... Alice P.S. Kong

Objective

β cell dedifferentiation may underlie the reversible reduction in pancreatic β cell mass and function in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We previously reported that β cell-specific Sirt3 knockout (Sirt3f/f;Cre/+) mice developed impaired glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after feeding with high fat diet (HFD). RNA sequencing showed that Sirt3-deficient islets had enhanced expression of Enpp2 (Autotaxin, or ATX), a secreted lysophospholipasewhich produces lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Here, we hypothesized that activation of the ATX/LPA pathway contributed to pancreatic β cell dedifferentiation in Sirt3-deficient β cells.

Methods

We applied LPA, or lysophosphatidylcoline (LPC), the substrate of ATX for producing LPA, to MIN6 cell line and mouse islets with altered Sirt3 expression to investigate the effect of LPA on β cell dedifferentiation and its underlying mechanisms. To examine the pathological effects of ATX/LPA pathway, we injected the β cell selective adeno-associated virus (AAV-Atx-shRNA) or negative control AAV-scramble in Sirt3f/f and Sirt3f/f;Cre/+ mice followed by 6-week of HFD feeding.

Results

In Sirt3f/f;Cre/+ mouse islets and Sirt3 knockdown MIN6 cells, ATX upregulation led to increased LPC with increased production of LPA. The latter not only induced reversible dedifferentiation in MIN6 cells and mouse islets, but also reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets. In MIN6 cells, LPA induced phosphorylation of JNK/p38 MAPK which was accompanied by β cell dedifferentiation. The latter was suppressed by inhibitors of LPA receptor, JNK, and p38 MAPK. Importantly, inhibiting ATX in vivo improved insulin secretion and reduced β cell dedifferentiation in HFD-fed Sirt3f/f;Cre/+mice.

Conclusions

Sirt3 prevents β cell dedifferentiation by inhibiting ATX expression and upregulation of LPA. These findings support a long-range signaling effect of Sirt3 which modulates the ATX-LPA pathway to reverse β cell dysfunction associated with glucolipotoxicity.

Autotaxin signaling facilitates β cell dedifferentiation and dysfunction induced by Sirtuin 3 deficiency

Huanyi Cao, Arthur C.K. Chung, Xing Ming, Dandan Mao, ... Alice P.S. Kong

Objective

β cell dedifferentiation may underlie the reversible reduction in pancreatic β cell mass and function in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We previously reported that β cell-specific Sirt3 knockout (Sirt3f/f;Cre/+) mice developed impaired glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after feeding with high fat diet (HFD). RNA sequencing showed that Sirt3-deficient islets had enhanced expression of Enpp2 (Autotaxin, or ATX), a secreted lysophospholipasewhich produces lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Here, we hypothesized that activation of the ATX/LPA pathway contributed to pancreatic β cell dedifferentiation in Sirt3-deficient β cells.

Methods

We applied LPA, or lysophosphatidylcoline (LPC), the substrate of ATX for producing LPA, to MIN6 cell line and mouse islets with altered Sirt3 expression to investigate the effect of LPA on β cell dedifferentiation and its underlying mechanisms. To examine the pathological effects of ATX/LPA pathway, we injected the β cell selective adeno-associated virus (AAV-Atx-shRNA) or negative control AAV-scramble in Sirt3f/f and Sirt3f/f;Cre/+ mice followed by 6-week of HFD feeding.

Results

In Sirt3f/f;Cre/+ mouse islets and Sirt3 knockdown MIN6 cells, ATX upregulation led to increased LPC with increased production of LPA. The latter not only induced reversible dedifferentiation in MIN6 cells and mouse islets, but also reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets. In MIN6 cells, LPA induced phosphorylation of JNK/p38 MAPK which was accompanied by β cell dedifferentiation. The latter was suppressed by inhibitors of LPA receptor, JNK, and p38 MAPK. Importantly, inhibiting ATX in vivo improved insulin secretion and reduced β cell dedifferentiation in HFD-fed Sirt3f/f;Cre/+mice.

Conclusions

Sirt3 prevents β cell dedifferentiation by inhibiting ATX expression and upregulation of LPA. These findings support a long-range signaling effect of Sirt3 which modulates the ATX-LPA pathway to reverse β cell dysfunction associated with glucolipotoxicity.

2021 impact factor: 7.422

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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