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Alterations in mitochondrial structure and function are commonly observed in adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases. In ALS, mitochondrial dysfunction impairs the efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC) activity and ATP production and leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, abnormal handling of intracellular calcium and cytochrome C release and apoptosis. The extent to which these alterations in mitochondrial functionimpair cellular operations is unclear. Therapeutic intervention based on combating these mitochondrial abnormalities have displayed variable success in mouse models of ALS and humans, as reviewed in Vandoorne et al.

Sean-Patrick Riechers, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Tayler B. Belton, Ram P. Chakrabarty, ... Robert G. Kalb

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Current Issue

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulation of metabolic homeostasis: An old dog teaches us new tricks

Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Clifford J. Rosen

 

Background

Late in the nineteenth century, it was theorized that a circulating product produced by the parathyroid glands could negatively impact skeletal homeostasis. A century later, intermittent administration of that protein, namely parathyroid hormone (PTH), was approved by the FDA and EMA as the first anabolic agent to treat osteoporosis. Yet, several unanswered but important questions remain about the skeletal actions of PTH.

Scope of review

Current research efforts have focused on improving the efficacy of PTH treatment by designing structural analogs and identifying other targets (e.g., the PTH or the calcium sensing receptor). A unique but only recently described aspect of PTH action is its regulation of cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, namely in bone and adipose tissue but also in other tissues. The current review aims to provide a brief background on PTH's previously described actions on bone and highlights how PTH regulates osteoblast bioenergetics, contributing to greater bone formation. It will also shed light on how PTH could alter metabolic homeostasis through its actions in other cells and tissues, thereby impacting the skeleton in a cell non-autonomous manner.

Major conclusions

PTH administration enhances bone formation by targeting the osteoblast through transcriptional changes in several pathways; the most prominent is via adenyl cyclase and PKA. PTH and its related protein, PTHrP, also induce glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation in bone cells and drive lipolysis and thermogenic programming in adipocytes; the latter may indirectly but positively influence skeletal metabolism. While much work remains, alterations in cellular metabolism may also provide a novel mechanism related to PTH's temporal actions. Thus, the bioenergetic impact of PTH can be considered another of the myriad anabolic effects of PTH on the skeleton. Just as importantly from a translational perspective, the non-skeletal metabolic effects may lead to a better understanding of whole-body homeostasis along with new and improved therapies to treat musculoskeletal conditions.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulation of metabolic homeostasis: An old dog teaches us new tricks

Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Clifford J. Rosen

 

Background

Late in the nineteenth century, it was theorized that a circulating product produced by the parathyroid glands could negatively impact skeletal homeostasis. A century later, intermittent administration of that protein, namely parathyroid hormone (PTH), was approved by the FDA and EMA as the first anabolic agent to treat osteoporosis. Yet, several unanswered but important questions remain about the skeletal actions of PTH.

Scope of review

Current research efforts have focused on improving the efficacy of PTH treatment by designing structural analogs and identifying other targets (e.g., the PTH or the calcium sensing receptor). A unique but only recently described aspect of PTH action is its regulation of cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, namely in bone and adipose tissue but also in other tissues. The current review aims to provide a brief background on PTH's previously described actions on bone and highlights how PTH regulates osteoblast bioenergetics, contributing to greater bone formation. It will also shed light on how PTH could alter metabolic homeostasis through its actions in other cells and tissues, thereby impacting the skeleton in a cell non-autonomous manner.

Major conclusions

PTH administration enhances bone formation by targeting the osteoblast through transcriptional changes in several pathways; the most prominent is via adenyl cyclase and PKA. PTH and its related protein, PTHrP, also induce glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation in bone cells and drive lipolysis and thermogenic programming in adipocytes; the latter may indirectly but positively influence skeletal metabolism. While much work remains, alterations in cellular metabolism may also provide a novel mechanism related to PTH's temporal actions. Thus, the bioenergetic impact of PTH can be considered another of the myriad anabolic effects of PTH on the skeleton. Just as importantly from a translational perspective, the non-skeletal metabolic effects may lead to a better understanding of whole-body homeostasis along with new and improved therapies to treat musculoskeletal conditions.

2021 impact factor: 7.422

The 60 Second Metabolist

In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

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