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Cancer cachexia is a systemic metabolic dysfunction that affects more than 80% of pancreatic cancer patients and is the leading cause of death in 22%–30% of all cancers. Because the cancer spread beyond the pancreas at the time of diagnosis, only about 20% of patients are candidates for surgery. Pancreatic cancer's aggressiveness destabilizes whole-body homeostasis by dismantling the normal network of organs crosstalk. This miss-communication favors the tumor progression during cancer cachexia, which is characterized by devastating body weight lossmuscle atrophy, fat wasting, decreased appetite. The molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic cues are still being investigated.

Mengistu Lemecha, Jaya Prakash Chalise, Yuki Takamuku, Guoxiang Zhang, ... Keiichi Itakura

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Current Issue

Hmgcs2-mediated ketogenesis modulates high-fat diet-induced hepatosteatosis

Shaza Asif, Ri Youn Kim, Thet Fatica, Jordan Sim, ... Kyoung-Han Kim

 

Objective

Aberrant ketogenesis is correlated with the degree of steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, and an inborn error of ketogenesis (mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase deficiency) is commonly associated with the development of the fatty liver. Here we aimed to determine the impact of Hmgcs2-mediated ketogenesis and its modulations on the development and treatment of fatty liver disease.

Methods

Loss- and gain-of-ketogenic function models, achieved by Hmgcs2 knockout and overexpression, respectively, were utilized to investigate the role of ketogenesis in the hepatic lipid accumulation during postnatal development and in a high-fat diet-induced NAFLD mouse model.

Results

Ketogenic function was decreased in NAFLD mice with a reduction in Hmgcs2 expression. Mice lacking Hmgcs2developed spontaneous fatty liver phenotype during postnatal development, which was rescued by a shift to a low-fat dietary composition via early weaning. Hmgcs2 heterozygous adult mice, which exhibited lower ketogenic activity, were more susceptible to diet-induced NAFLD development, whereas HMGCS2 overexpression in NAFLD mice improved hepatosteatosis and glucose homeostasis.

Conclusions

Our study adds new knowledge to the field of ketone body metabolism and shows that Hmgcs2-mediated ketogenesis modulates hepatic lipid regulation under a fat-enriched nutritional environment. The regulation of hepatic ketogenesis may be a viable therapeutic strategy in the prevention and treatment of hepatosteatosis.

Hmgcs2-mediated ketogenesis modulates high-fat diet-induced hepatosteatosis

Shaza Asif, Ri Youn Kim, Thet Fatica, Jordan Sim, ... Kyoung-Han Kim

 

Objective

Aberrant ketogenesis is correlated with the degree of steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, and an inborn error of ketogenesis (mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase deficiency) is commonly associated with the development of the fatty liver. Here we aimed to determine the impact of Hmgcs2-mediated ketogenesis and its modulations on the development and treatment of fatty liver disease.

Methods

Loss- and gain-of-ketogenic function models, achieved by Hmgcs2 knockout and overexpression, respectively, were utilized to investigate the role of ketogenesis in the hepatic lipid accumulation during postnatal development and in a high-fat diet-induced NAFLD mouse model.

Results

Ketogenic function was decreased in NAFLD mice with a reduction in Hmgcs2 expression. Mice lacking Hmgcs2developed spontaneous fatty liver phenotype during postnatal development, which was rescued by a shift to a low-fat dietary composition via early weaning. Hmgcs2 heterozygous adult mice, which exhibited lower ketogenic activity, were more susceptible to diet-induced NAFLD development, whereas HMGCS2 overexpression in NAFLD mice improved hepatosteatosis and glucose homeostasis.

Conclusions

Our study adds new knowledge to the field of ketone body metabolism and shows that Hmgcs2-mediated ketogenesis modulates hepatic lipid regulation under a fat-enriched nutritional environment. The regulation of hepatic ketogenesis may be a viable therapeutic strategy in the prevention and treatment of hepatosteatosis.

2021 impact factor: 8.568

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