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Cancer cachexia is a systemic metabolic dysfunction that affects more than 80% of pancreatic cancer patients and is the leading cause of death in 22%–30% of all cancers. Because the cancer spread beyond the pancreas at the time of diagnosis, only about 20% of patients are candidates for surgery. Pancreatic cancer's aggressiveness destabilizes whole-body homeostasis by dismantling the normal network of organs crosstalk. This miss-communication favors the tumor progression during cancer cachexia, which is characterized by devastating body weight lossmuscle atrophy, fat wasting, decreased appetite. The molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic cues are still being investigated.

Mengistu Lemecha, Jaya Prakash Chalise, Yuki Takamuku, Guoxiang Zhang, ... Keiichi Itakura

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Current Issue

SORLA mediates endocytic uptake of proIAPP and protects against islet amyloid deposition

Alexis Z.L. Shih, Yi-Chun Chen, Thilo Speckmann, Esben Søndergaard, ... Thomas E. Willnow

Objective

Sorting-related receptor with type A repeats (SORLA) is a neuronal sorting receptor that prevents accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides, the main constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer disease. Recent transcriptomicstudies show that SORLA transcripts are also found in beta cells of pancreatic islets, yet the role of SORLA in islets is unknown. Based on its protective role in reducing the amyloid burden in the brain, we hypothesized that SORLA has a similar function in the pancreas via regulation of amyloid formation from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP).

Methods

We generated human IAPP transgenic mice lacking SORLA (hIAPP:SORLA KO) to assess the consequences of receptor deficiency for islet histopathology and function in vivo. Using both primary islet cells and cell lines, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms whereby SORLA controls the cellular metabolism and accumulation of IAPP.

Results

Loss of SORLA activity in hIAPP:SORLA KO resulted in a significant increase in islet amyloid deposits and associated islet cell death compared to hIAPP:SORLA WT animals. Aggravated islet amyloid deposition was observed in mice fed a normal chow diet, not requiring high-fat diet feeding typically needed to induce islet amyloidosis in mouse models. In vitro studies showed that SORLA binds to and mediates the endocytic uptake of proIAPP, but not mature IAPP, delivering the propeptide to an endolysosomal fate.

Conclusions

SORLA functions as a proIAPP-specific clearance receptor, protecting against islet amyloid deposition and associated cell death caused by IAPP.

SORLA mediates endocytic uptake of proIAPP and protects against islet amyloid deposition

Alexis Z.L. Shih, Yi-Chun Chen, Thilo Speckmann, Esben Søndergaard, ... Thomas E. Willnow

Objective

Sorting-related receptor with type A repeats (SORLA) is a neuronal sorting receptor that prevents accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides, the main constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer disease. Recent transcriptomicstudies show that SORLA transcripts are also found in beta cells of pancreatic islets, yet the role of SORLA in islets is unknown. Based on its protective role in reducing the amyloid burden in the brain, we hypothesized that SORLA has a similar function in the pancreas via regulation of amyloid formation from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP).

Methods

We generated human IAPP transgenic mice lacking SORLA (hIAPP:SORLA KO) to assess the consequences of receptor deficiency for islet histopathology and function in vivo. Using both primary islet cells and cell lines, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms whereby SORLA controls the cellular metabolism and accumulation of IAPP.

Results

Loss of SORLA activity in hIAPP:SORLA KO resulted in a significant increase in islet amyloid deposits and associated islet cell death compared to hIAPP:SORLA WT animals. Aggravated islet amyloid deposition was observed in mice fed a normal chow diet, not requiring high-fat diet feeding typically needed to induce islet amyloidosis in mouse models. In vitro studies showed that SORLA binds to and mediates the endocytic uptake of proIAPP, but not mature IAPP, delivering the propeptide to an endolysosomal fate.

Conclusions

SORLA functions as a proIAPP-specific clearance receptor, protecting against islet amyloid deposition and associated cell death caused by IAPP.

2021 impact factor: 8.568

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