Cover Story Current Issue

Cancer cachexia is a systemic metabolic dysfunction that affects more than 80% of pancreatic cancer patients and is the leading cause of death in 22%–30% of all cancers. Because the cancer spread beyond the pancreas at the time of diagnosis, only about 20% of patients are candidates for surgery. Pancreatic cancer's aggressiveness destabilizes whole-body homeostasis by dismantling the normal network of organs crosstalk. This miss-communication favors the tumor progression during cancer cachexia, which is characterized by devastating body weight lossmuscle atrophy, fat wasting, decreased appetite. The molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic cues are still being investigated.

Mengistu Lemecha, Jaya Prakash Chalise, Yuki Takamuku, Guoxiang Zhang, ... Keiichi Itakura

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Current Issue

PACAP attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation through the FAIM/AMPK/IRβ axis during overnutrition

Wei Luo, Jiaxin Dai, Jianmin Liu, Yongmei Huang, ... Yi Ma

Objective

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was reported to attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation in overnutrition-related metabolic disorder, mediated by up-regulation of fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM). However, how PACAP regulates FAIM in metabolic tissues remains to be addressed. Here we investigated the underlying mechanism on the role of PACAP in ameliorating metabolic disorder and examined the potential therapeutic effects of PACAP in preventing the progression of metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD).

Methods

Mouse models with MAFLD induced by high-fat diet were employed. Different doses of PACAP were intraperitoneally administrated. Western blotluciferaseassay, lentiviral-mediated gene manipulations and animal metabolic phenotyping analysis were performed to explore the signaling pathway involved in PACAP function.

Results

PACAP ameliorated the excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and inhibited lipogenesis in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Mechanistically, PACAP activated the FAIM-AMPK-IRβ axis to inhibit the expression of lipid synthesis genes, and FAIM mediated the effects of PACAP. FAIM suppression via lentiviral-mediated shRNA inhibited the activation of AMPK, whereas FAIM overexpression promoted AMPK activation. PACAP increased the promoter activity of FAIM gene through activating PKA-CREB signaling pathway.

Conclusion

Our work demonstrated that the administration of PACAP represented a feasible approach for treating hepatic lipid accumulation in MAFLD. The findings reveal the molecular mechanism that PACAP increase FAIM expression and activates the FAIM/AMPK/IRβ signaling axis, thus inhibits lipogenesis to mediate its beneficial effects.

PACAP attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation through the FAIM/AMPK/IRβ axis during overnutrition

Wei Luo, Jiaxin Dai, Jianmin Liu, Yongmei Huang, ... Yi Ma

Objective

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was reported to attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation in overnutrition-related metabolic disorder, mediated by up-regulation of fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM). However, how PACAP regulates FAIM in metabolic tissues remains to be addressed. Here we investigated the underlying mechanism on the role of PACAP in ameliorating metabolic disorder and examined the potential therapeutic effects of PACAP in preventing the progression of metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD).

Methods

Mouse models with MAFLD induced by high-fat diet were employed. Different doses of PACAP were intraperitoneally administrated. Western blotluciferaseassay, lentiviral-mediated gene manipulations and animal metabolic phenotyping analysis were performed to explore the signaling pathway involved in PACAP function.

Results

PACAP ameliorated the excessive hepatic lipid accumulation and inhibited lipogenesis in HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Mechanistically, PACAP activated the FAIM-AMPK-IRβ axis to inhibit the expression of lipid synthesis genes, and FAIM mediated the effects of PACAP. FAIM suppression via lentiviral-mediated shRNA inhibited the activation of AMPK, whereas FAIM overexpression promoted AMPK activation. PACAP increased the promoter activity of FAIM gene through activating PKA-CREB signaling pathway.

Conclusion

Our work demonstrated that the administration of PACAP represented a feasible approach for treating hepatic lipid accumulation in MAFLD. The findings reveal the molecular mechanism that PACAP increase FAIM expression and activates the FAIM/AMPK/IRβ signaling axis, thus inhibits lipogenesis to mediate its beneficial effects.

2021 impact factor: 8.568

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