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The gastrointestinal tract is involved in physiological regulation, including regulation of metabolism and feeding behavior, through the secretion of gut hormones and generation of signals via receptors in response to nutrients. Several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified as sensors of lipids, such as fatty acids, monoacylglycerols (MAGs), and their metabolites, the levels of which are increased in the intestine after meals. GPR40 and 120 are well-known receptors for dietary long-chain fatty acids and their metabolites produced by gut microbiota. In addition, GPR119 is a receptor for MAGs [i.e. 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG)], lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) [i.e. oleoylethanolamide (OEA)]. Although enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, and neural fibers have been postulated to sense lipids via GPCRs in the gut, most studies imply that enteroendocrine cells are the primary cells that sense lipids, which results in the production of hormones like cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) after a meal.

Miki Igarashi, Tetsuhiko Hayakawa, Haruka Tanabe, Keita Watanabe, ... Ikuo Kimura

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Current Issue

Selective ablation of P53 in pancreatic beta cells fails to ameliorate glucose metabolism in genetic, dietary and pharmacological models of diabetes mellitus

Celina Uhlemeyer, Nadine Müller, Michael Rieck, Jennifer Kuboth, ... Bengt-Frederik Belgardt

Objective

Beta cell dysfunction and death are critical steps in the development of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Activation of the essential tumor suppressor and transcription factor P53 (also known as TP53 and Trp53 in mice) was linked to beta cell death in vitro and has been reported in several diabetes mouse models and beta cells of humans with T2D. In this article, we set out to determine the beta cell specific role of P53 in beta cell dysfunction, cell death and development of diabetes in vivo.

Methods

We generated beta cell specific P53 knockout (P53BKO) mice and used complementary genetic, dietary and pharmacological models of glucose intolerance, beta cell dysfunction and diabetes development to evaluate the functional role of P53 selectively in beta cells. We further analyzed the effect of P53 ablation on beta cell survival in isolated pancreatic islets exposed to diabetogenic stress inducers ex vivo by flow cytometry.

Results

Beta cell specific ablation of P53/Trp53 failed to ameliorate glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or to increase beta cell numbers in genetic, dietary and pharmacological models of diabetes. Additionally, loss of P53 in beta cells did not protect against streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemia and beta cell death, although STZ-induced activation of classical pro-apoptotic P53 target genes was significantly reduced in P53BKO mice. In contrast, Olaparib mediated PARP1 inhibition protected against acute ex vivo STZ-induced beta cell death and islet destruction.

Conclusions

Our study reveals that ablation of P53 specifically in beta cells is unexpectedly unable to attenuate beta cell failure and death in vivo and ex vivo. While during development and progression of diabetes, P53 and P53-regulated pathways are activated, our study suggests that P53 signaling is not essential for loss of beta cells or beta cell dysfunction. P53 in other cell types and organs may predominantly regulate systemic glucose homeostasis.

Selective ablation of P53 in pancreatic beta cells fails to ameliorate glucose metabolism in genetic, dietary and pharmacological models of diabetes mellitus

Celina Uhlemeyer, Nadine Müller, Michael Rieck, Jennifer Kuboth, ... Bengt-Frederik Belgardt

Objective

Beta cell dysfunction and death are critical steps in the development of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Activation of the essential tumor suppressor and transcription factor P53 (also known as TP53 and Trp53 in mice) was linked to beta cell death in vitro and has been reported in several diabetes mouse models and beta cells of humans with T2D. In this article, we set out to determine the beta cell specific role of P53 in beta cell dysfunction, cell death and development of diabetes in vivo.

Methods

We generated beta cell specific P53 knockout (P53BKO) mice and used complementary genetic, dietary and pharmacological models of glucose intolerance, beta cell dysfunction and diabetes development to evaluate the functional role of P53 selectively in beta cells. We further analyzed the effect of P53 ablation on beta cell survival in isolated pancreatic islets exposed to diabetogenic stress inducers ex vivo by flow cytometry.

Results

Beta cell specific ablation of P53/Trp53 failed to ameliorate glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or to increase beta cell numbers in genetic, dietary and pharmacological models of diabetes. Additionally, loss of P53 in beta cells did not protect against streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemia and beta cell death, although STZ-induced activation of classical pro-apoptotic P53 target genes was significantly reduced in P53BKO mice. In contrast, Olaparib mediated PARP1 inhibition protected against acute ex vivo STZ-induced beta cell death and islet destruction.

Conclusions

Our study reveals that ablation of P53 specifically in beta cells is unexpectedly unable to attenuate beta cell failure and death in vivo and ex vivo. While during development and progression of diabetes, P53 and P53-regulated pathways are activated, our study suggests that P53 signaling is not essential for loss of beta cells or beta cell dysfunction. P53 in other cell types and organs may predominantly regulate systemic glucose homeostasis.

2021 impact factor: 8.568

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