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Emerging evidence from both human and animal studies underscores a significant association between obesity and cognitive decline, including brain atrophy, diminished white matter volume, compromised blood–brain barrier integrity, and heightened susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, chronic disruptions in glucose homeostasis, impaired insulin signaling, and metabolic dysfunctions are closely linked to cognitive impairments and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. These observations suggest the importance of maintaining normal body weight and proper fuel metabolism, which is crucial to reducing the risk of developing cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.

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Increased α-HB links colorectal cancer and diabetes by potentiating NF-κB signaling

Xinyue Lv, Peipei Ding, Luying Li, Ling Li, ... Weiguo Hu

Increased α-HB links colorectal cancer and diabetes by potentiating NF-κB signaling

Sufficient evidence has linked many different types of cancers and T2D through shared risk factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. α-Hydroxybutyrate (α-HB), a byproduct metabolite increased in diabetes and cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC), triggers lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) nuclear translocation. Nuclear LDHA markedly extends NF-κB nuclear retention by interacting with phosphorylated p65, leading to an increase in TNF-α production, impaired insulin secretion and the exacerbation of azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced CRC and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, metformin interrupted this process by inhibiting the transcription of FOXM1 and c-MYC, the resultant downregulation of LDHA expression and α-HB-induced LDHA nuclear translocation. Thus, the results reveal the elevated α-HB level could be a novel shared risk factor of linking CRC, diabetes and the use of metformin treatment, as well as highlight the importance of preventing NF-κB activation for protecting against cancer and diabetes.

    Articles in Press

    Increased α-HB links colorectal cancer and diabetes by potentiating NF-κB signaling

    Xinyue Lv, Peipei Ding, Luying Li, Ling Li, ... Weiguo Hu

    Increased α-HB links colorectal cancer and diabetes by potentiating NF-κB signaling

    Sufficient evidence has linked many different types of cancers and T2D through shared risk factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. α-Hydroxybutyrate (α-HB), a byproduct metabolite increased in diabetes and cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC), triggers lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) nuclear translocation. Nuclear LDHA markedly extends NF-κB nuclear retention by interacting with phosphorylated p65, leading to an increase in TNF-α production, impaired insulin secretion and the exacerbation of azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced CRC and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, metformin interrupted this process by inhibiting the transcription of FOXM1 and c-MYC, the resultant downregulation of LDHA expression and α-HB-induced LDHA nuclear translocation. Thus, the results reveal the elevated α-HB level could be a novel shared risk factor of linking CRC, diabetes and the use of metformin treatment, as well as highlight the importance of preventing NF-κB activation for protecting against cancer and diabetes.

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