Individuals with diabetes are at a greater risk of hospitalization and mortality resulting from viral, bacterial and fungal infections. The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread quickly to more than 213 countries across the world and has claimed 395,779 lives as of June 7, 2020. Notably, in several studies, diabetes is one of the most reported comorbidities in patients with severe COVID-19.
Scope of Review
In this review, I will summarize the clinical data on the risk for infectious diseases in individuals with diabetes, highlighting the mechanisms for altered immune regulation. A special focus will be given to coronaviruses. In the light of the new clinical data obtained from COVID-19 patients, mechanisms such as cytokine storm, pulmonary and endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulation that may render individuals with diabetes more vulnerable to COVID-19 will be discussed in the end.
Epidemiological studies show that poorly controlled diabetes is a risk factor for various infectious diseases. Given the global burden of diabetes and pandemic nature of coronaviruses, understanding how diabetes affects COVID-19 severity is critical to design tailored treatments and clinical management of individuals affected by diabetes.