Volume 67 | January 2023

Cover Story

The gastrointestinal tract is involved in physiological regulation, including regulation of metabolism and feeding behavior, through the secretion of gut hormones and generation of signals via receptors in response to nutrients. Several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified as sensors of lipids, such as fatty acids, monoacylglycerols (MAGs), and their metabolites, the levels of which are increased in the intestine after meals. GPR40 and 120 are well-known receptors for dietary long-chain fatty acids and their metabolites produced by gut microbiota. In addition, GPR119 is a receptor for MAGs [i.e. 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG)], lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) [i.e. oleoylethanolamide (OEA)]. Although enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, and neural fibers have been postulated to sense lipids via GPCRs in the gut, most studies imply that enteroendocrine cells are the primary cells that sense lipids, which results in the production of hormones like cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) after a meal.

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